Volume 2 Issue 1
Research article: The Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training in Conditions of Gravitational Unloading
Koryak Yu. A*
The effect of a 7-day "Dry" Water Immersion (DI) with countermeasures (Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation-NMES) on the function and architecture of the human triceps surae muscle was studied in six healthy young men subjects. During DI, subjects performed NMES 4 muscle groups of both lower extremities. NMES continued for six days, during which daily five days on end (from Monday to Friday inclusive) including one day of rest (Saturday). Architectural properties of the triceps surae muscles was measured in vivo by use of B-mode ultrasonography. The ankle was positioned at 15° dorsiflexion (-15°) and 0, +15, and +30° plantar flexion, with the knee set at 90°. At each position, longitudinal ultrasonic images of the Medial (MG) and Lateral (LG) Gastrocnemius and Soleus (SOL) muscles were obtained while the subject was relaxed and performed 50% from maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion, from which lengths and angles of fascicles with respect to the aponeuroses were determined. After DI with by NMES maximal plantar flexion torque increased by 11%. In the passive condition, fascicle lengths decreased by 16%, 37%, and 24%; pennation angle increased by 38%, 35%, and 34% for MG, LG, and SOL, respectively. Decreases in muscle thicknesses in leg muscles were not prevented b? the present exercise protocol, suggesting ? need for specific exercise training for these muscles. Trained muscles showed significant changes in pennation angles and fibre length after DI with by NMES, suggesting that muscle architecture does change remarkably b? muscle atrophy. These findings suggest that rapid muscle architecture remodeling occurs in lower limb in humans, with changes occurring within of unloading of the musculoskeletal system. These adaptations might protect from a larger loss of muscle force.
Keywords: "Dry" water immersion; Neuromuscular electrical stimulation; Ultrasonography; Muscle architecture; Triceps surae muscle; Muscle contraction
Cite this Article: Yu AK. The Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training in Conditions of Gravitational Unloading. Sci J Biomed Eng Biomed Sci. 2018;2(1): 008-013.
Published: 24 April 2018
Review Article: Recent Innovations in Textile Sutures - An Approach towards Improved Surgical Procedures
Gokarneshan N* and Velumani K
The present age is witnessing revolutionary polymeric textile implantable devices which have set in new trend in traditional materials and methods of surgery. Such scientifically advanced polymer materials have been designed for particular needs in surgical and interventional procedures. Investigations have been carried out to study properties of suture materials so as to enable surgeons make proper choice of sutures for particular surgical end uses. Damaged tissues have been repaired through use of absorbable suture that close the edges of a wound or incision. Non-absorbable sutures have been made to remain permanently in the body or removed after certain duration of healing. It holds valid for sutures of similar chemical nature and of various geometric construction, like Ethilon aganist Nurolon. Silk sutures have been treated with natural fungal pigment of varying concentrations to study its influence on the properties of silk sutures like tenacity, knot strength, friction and antimicrobial activity. The finding revealed that the pigment concentration in the chosen range did not considerably influence the suture properties considered. With the increase in the pigment concentration the antimicrobial activity also increases as pointed out by antimicrobial test results against select types of bacterium. The stages involved in the synthetic suture production include filament manufacturing process, suture needle fabrication and sterilization. Review has been done relating to the raw materials, production phases of sutures, design of suture, insertion process and geometry of suture needle. For over 50 years biomedical textiles and fiber-based implants (BTFIs) have commonly used for clinical purpose to enable healing of the different types of biomaterials used, silk - based biomaterials have been widely used clinically and are being increasingly considered for its potential as biomedical textiles.
Cite this Article: Gokarneshan N, Velumani K. Recent Innovations in Textile Sutures - An Approach towards Improved Surgical Procedures. Sci J Biomed Eng Biomed Sci. 2018;2(1): 001-007.
Published: 26 January 2018
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