Volume 2 Issue 1

Research Article: OCT4B1 Suppression down Regulated BCL2 Gene Family Expression in Human Tumor Cell Lines

Mirzaei MR*, Hassanshahi GH, Mahmoodi M, Hajizadeh MR, Asadi F, Pooladvand V

Background and Aims: The OCT4B1, an important OCT4 variant is expressed more than other variants in both human cancer cell lines and tissues. New finding showed this variant has anti-apoptotic potency in mentioned cells and tissues. BCL2 family is one of the twelve gene families involved in apoptosis pathway with negative control in apoptosis recurrence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of OCT4B1 silencing on several genes of BCL2 family in human tumor cell lines.
Materials and Methods: three human tumor cell lines; AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor) and U-87MG (brain tumor) were transfected with specific OCT4B1 siRNA and a scrambled sequence as control, using Lipofectamine 2000 comerical kit. Following, The expression rate of BCL2 gene family transcripts were evaluated in parallel with beta-actin (as housekeeping gene) using Real-Time PCR technique.
Results: Expressional profile of the studied BCL2 transcripts in three cell lines is almost similar. Nineteen of twenty one studied genes in BCL2 family showed down-regulation, forteen gene were decreased in expression more than 3 and three genes (BAD,BCL2 and BNIP3L) more than 10 folds. BCLAF1 showed up-regulation (in U87MG and 5637 tumor cell lines) and MCL1 showed unchanged gene expression.
Conclusions: According to these results, it may be concluded that OCT4B1 suppression can lead to apoptosis in tumor cell lines via down-regulation of several BCL2 transcripts. Thus, OCT4B1 suppression effects on BCL2 may be considered as promising target genes in future studies in cancer research and therapy.

Cite this Article: Maharshi G. Blood Cancer - World Fights Back. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2017; 2(1): 019-022.

Published: 14 June 2017

Review Article: Blood Cancer - World Fights Back

Maharshi Ghosh*

Blood Cancer is well known disease all over the world. Nearly 20 percent people suffering from blood cancer are able to survive. This is because of the lack of proper medical facilities and high costs. It is estimated that after every 4 minutes one person in the US is diagnosed with a leukemia. An estimated total of 171,560 people in the US are expected to be diagnosed with myeloma, leukemia or lymphoma in 2016.This article will tell you what are the steps one must take to get protected from blood cancer..

Cite this Article: Maharshi G. Blood Cancer - World Fights Back. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2017; 2(1): 019-022.

Published: 09 June 2017

Short Communication: NF-κB Prevents Oncogenic Ras-Induced β-Actin Cleavage in p53-Deficient Cells

Wataru Sugimoto, Katsuhiko Itoh, Toshiya Kotari, Alvin K. Guo, Takahiro Ebata, Hiroaki Hirata, Keiko Kawauchi*

Tumor cell characteristics, including invasiveness, are influenced by the tumor suppressor p53. We recently reported that p53 diminishes oncogenic Ras-driven cell invasion by promoting β-actin cleavage, which is mediated by the serine protease high-temperature requirement A2 (HtrA2/ Omi). In this study, we showed that nuclear factor (NF)-κB is responsible for eliminating Ras - induced β-actin cleavage in p53 - deficient cells. In p53 knockout (p53-/-) Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs), depletion of the NF-κB component p65/ RelA using its specific shRNA caused β-actin cleavage in response to expression of oncogenic Ras. Knockdown of p65/ RelA enhanced the mitochondrial translocation of p38 MAPK, a critical step in HtrA2/Omi activation. Expression of mitochondria-targeting signal-tagged p65/ RelA diminished β-actin cleavage in p65/ RelA-knockdown cells. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying contribution of NF-κB to malignancy of Ras-mutated cells with dysfunctional p53.

Cite this Article: Sugimoto W, Itoh K, Kotari T, Guo AK, Ebata T, et al. NF-kB Prevents Oncogenic Ras-Induced β-Actin Cleavage in p53-Deficient Cells. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2017; 2(1): 014-018.

Published: 24 May 2017

Review Article: Evolution of Molecular Biology and Cancer: Crucial Turning Points and Startling Discoveries in a Continual Battle

Hassan A. Aziz*, A. Elsharawy

Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Comprehensive understanding of the evolution of molecular cell biology and cancer, and their crucial turning points in a chronological order, is of enormous importance for researchers, physicians, medical students, & other health professionals. This would allow better recognition of what we currently do have and what we have to do next to beat cancer.
It is also central to realize that, while the field of molecular cell biology of cancer strived to bare the etiology of cancer or to produce a cure, it had immensely increased the understanding of the molecular biology of mammalian cells. We thus also discuss in this article how the study of cancer cells helped us to develop many of the molecular techniques used nowadays in our laboratories and clinics.
Despite the surplus capacity of our cells in accommodating defects, cancer has frighteningly become a disease of the genome, and genomics is thus now considered a "dissecting" tool and a major part of cancer care. Looking to the future, there is a need to generate "individual" comprehensive genomic-based signatures, and develop better information systems for collection and integration of multiple data to improve our understanding of malignancy processes and tackle the increasing complexity (intra - / inter - individual heterogeneity) of cancer patients. This would be another turning point in the history of cancer research, and inevitably pave the way for a successful translation into clinical application in precision cancer medicine.

Cite this Article: Aziz HA, Elsharawy, A. Evolution of Molecular Biology and Cancer: Crucial Turning Points and Startling Discoveries in a Continual Battle. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2017; 2(1): 009-013.

Published: 18 May 2017

Case Report: A Very Rare Case of Malignant Pilomatrix Carcinoma of the Mammary Skin

Shwetabh Sinha and Tabassum Wadasadawala*

Pilomatrix carcinoma is extremely rare malignant tumours arising from hair follicles with around 80 cases reported till date. Owing to the paucity of literature and similarity of clinic pathological features with its benign counterpart they are often misdiagnosed. These tumors are known to be locally aggressive with low albeit significant metastatic potential. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy being used historically for improving local control. We present a case of an extremely unusual site (breast) of pilomatrix carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge no case of pilomatrix carcinoma of the mammary skin has been reported till date.

Cite this Article: Sinha S, Wadasadawala T. A Very Rare Case of Malignant Pilomatrix Carcinoma of the Mammary Skin. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2017; 2(1): 006-008.

Published: 10 April 2017

Case Report: The Jejunum Non-Hodgkin's Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma: an Origin of Extra-Germinal Center

Yanhua Wang*, Jianxiong Wu, WencongHe

Introduction: Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), as a set of heterogeneous aggressive lymphoma, most commonly originated in the germinal center B lymphocytes. Rare cases were from peripheral blood B cell (outside germinal center) or from the inert lymphoma development and transformation. And such tumor with originality outside germinal center was seldom seen in the literature. Even the tumor in combination with chronic gastritis has not been reported before.
Presentation of case: A 51-year-old man admitted to emergency department with acute abdominal pain around the umbilicus. From the collective materials, the initial diagnosis was as chronic gastritis,cholecystitis and gall bladder small polyps. After hospital, the optimal therapy did not relieve the symptoms. Intraoperatively, a mass with a diameter of almost 5 cm originated from the distal jejunum segments neighboring the duodenum was seen. The patient was managed by segmental resection of the small intestine including the mass. Histologically, the cancerous cells are 4-5 fold larger than the normal lymphocytes. They exhibited atypical, and these heterotypic lymphocytes diffusely infiltrated in the whole layer of the digestive tract. The immunohistochemical studies showed that tumor cells expressed B cell differentiation antigen, with positivity for CD20, CD3, CD5, CD30, Ki-67(> 80%), Bcl, MUM, and negativity for CD21, CD10, Bcl-2. So, the final pathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B lymphoma of the jejunum.
Discussion: Microscopic examination of the small intestine is a necessary means of diagnosis of the disease. Concomitant resection of tumoral lesions detected in the neighbor intestinal segments should be considered to diagnose and treat. For the diagnosis of this kind of tumor, immunohistochemistry pattern including positivity for CD20, CD3, CD5, CD30 etc. plays a crucial role. Therefore, detailed immunohistochemistry analysis should be constructed in suspicious cases.
Conclusion: Coexistence of diffuse large B lymphoma of the jejunum with chronic gastritis, cholecystitis and gall bladder small polyps is a rare event. Complete surgical excision and postoperative chemotherapy could be regarded as the main modality of such disease. Long-term follow up with serial imaging techniques is recommended.

Cite this Article: Wang Y, Wu J, He W. The Jejunum Non-Hodgkin's Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma: an Origin of Extra-Germinal Center. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2017;1(1): 001-005.

Published: 02 January 2017

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