Volume 2 Issue 1

Research Article: Variables Associated with Diabetic Maculopathy: A Cross Sectional Study from Basrah

Zaid H. Abduljabbar1, Abbas A. Mansour2*, Salah Z. Al Asady3 and Wissam J. Alhamdani4

Background: Diabetic Maculopathy (DME) does not compulsorily fit the usual course of diabetic retinopathy advancement. This work aimed to study the variables associated with DME in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Basrah (Southern Iraq).
Patients and Methods: This was a cross sectional study from Faiha Specialized Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Center) (FDEMC) done over the period of January - April 2014. The study enrolled 197 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least 10 years duration and aged >30 years.
Results: No significant differences between those with DME and no maculopathy regarding age, gender, BMI, family history of diabetes, duration of diabetes, hypertension, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, current smoking, HbA1c, lipid profile , laser treatment, cataract surgery or drug treatment.
Comparison between maculopathy 1 and 2 was showed that all the studied variables were not significantly different except for Total Cholesterol (TC), which was higher in the maculopathy 2 (P value = 0. 026) and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) higher among maculopathy 1 (p = 0. 003). Furthermore comparing more severe maculopathy (M2) with no maculopathy only the TC remain significantly higher (p values = 0. 032) among those with severe maculopathy (M2).
Only Duration of diabetes = 13 years (odds ratio [OD], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.303 to 0.951; p = 0.032), TC = 200mg/ dL (OD, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.47; p < 0.0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) =100 mg/dL (OD, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.31; p < 0.0001) were statistically associated with DME.
On logistic regression analysis, the TC =200 mg/dL (B = -0.734, Wald = 3.900, Exp (B) = 0.480, 95% CI = 0.232 to 0.994; p =0.048) and LDL-C =100 mg/dL (B = -1.403, Wald = 12.664, Exp (B) = 0.246, 95% CI = 0.114 to 0.533; p < 0.0001) remains significantly associated with DME.
Conclusion: Only TC and LDL-C correlated with the presence of DME. No significant associated seen with age, gender, smoking state, duration of diabetes, hypertension, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , HbA1c, previous laser treatment, cataract surgery or treatment for diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetic Maculopathy; Type 2 diabetes; Dyslipidemia

Cite this Article: Abduljabbar ZH, Mansour AA, Al Asady SZ, Alhamdani WJ. Variables Associated with Diabetic Maculopathy: A Cross Sectional Study from Basrah. Int J Clin Endocrinol. 2018;2(1): 022-028.

Published: 24 July 2018

Mini-Review: Hypercalcemic Crisis with Acute Pancreatitis - unusual Presentation of Parathyroid Cyst

Lalit K. Bansal*, Lalit Aggarwal and Saurabh Shekhar

The incidence of parathyroid cysts in the general population is not known precisely. It very low in a large series of consecutive neck USG (0.075%) and a prevalence of 3% was found in patients operated for cervical mass or hyperparathyroidism [1]. Moreover, a few series have reported on the incidence of functional cysts, which may vary from 10 to 33% [2]. Symptomatic parathyroid cyst is a rare entity. Hypercalcemic crisis with features of acute pancreatitis in parathyroid cyst is also rare. Aggressive and appropriate medical and surgical management is required in these cases.
Here we are describing a case of hyperparathyroidism with features of hypercalcemia with acute pancreatitis. Later he was diagnosed as right inferior parathyroid cyst for which excision was done and gradually patient was relieved from features of hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis.

Cite this Article: Bansal LK, Aggarwal L, Shekhar S. Hypercalcemic Crisis with Acute Pancreatitis - unusual Presentation of Parathyroid Cyst. Int J Clin Endocrinol. 2018;2(1): 019-021.

Published: 28 May 2018

Mini-Review: Human Growth Hormone Therapy

Michael AB. Naafs*

In this mini-review benefits and risks of Growth Hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency are discussed. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis will be made and the inevitable illicit use and doping of growth hormone will be considered. Global human growth hormone market is expected to rise to USD 7,1 billion in 2025 and is the fastest growing market segment in Pharma due to extending GH treatment indications and investments of large players. Growth hormone use in anti-aging is highly controversial but booming. New guidelines are discussed as well as the recently FDA approved ghrelin oral GH stimulation test. The very recent horizon view of the Growth Hormone Research Society is discussed as well as the proteomic search for putative new biomarkers for detecting GH defiency in patients and doping in athletes. GH replacement therapy in children remains a costly treatment with USD 35.000-50.000 for each gained inch in height.

Cite this Article: Naafs MAB. Human Growth Hormone Therapy. Int J Clin Endocrinol. 2018;2(1): 011-018.

Published: 22 May 2018

Mini-Review: Microbial Endocrinology in Microbiology: A Mini-Review

Michael AB. Naafs*

Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of two seemingly desparate fields, microbiology and neurobiology. Current research developments in intestinal microbiota and microbial endocrinology are considered. Its relationship with behavior, metabolism and a variety of diseases are discussed. Pathogenesis, pathophysiology and possible therapeutic applications to the intestinal microbiome communities are reviewed.

Cite this Article: Naafs MAB. Microbial Endocrinology in Microbiology: A Mini-Review. Int J Clin Endocrinol. 2018;2(1): 004-010.

Published: 25 January 2018

Editorial: Individualized Dosing of Denosumab for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Derick Adams*

Denosumab is a potent monoclonal antibody which inactivates the RANK ligand. Inactivation of RANK ligand leads to the inhibition of osteoclast activity and maturation which decreases bone resorption. Denosumab is a potent antiresorptive that has been shown to dramatically suppress bone turnover markers, maintain bone mineral density, and prevent fractures [1].

Cite this Article: Adams D. Individualized Dosing of Denosumab for the Treatment of Osteoporosis. Int J Clin Endocrinol. 2018;2(1): 001-003.

Published: 12 January 2018

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