Volume 2 Issue 1

Book Review: First Aid

Uqbah Iqbal*

Written by Maizal Affendey, this book is written to meet the needs of scouting activity, especially for those who want to get more detailed and detailed guidance or guidance in matters relating to the scout movement. Its small size and its content focused on just one topic makes this book unique. This book is made in such a way as to facilitate the scout taking him anywhere besides being able to make reference to certain skills immediately.

Cite this Article: Iqbal U. First Aid. Int J Neurol Dis. 2018;2(1): 024-025.

Published: 28 December 2018

Book Review: Child Development Assessment: a Guide to Nurses

Uqbah Iqbal*

Written by Dr. Wan Asma Wan Ismail, this handbook for nurses is published to assist nurses in identifying children who are facing a developmental problem at the earliest possible stage. The book also attempts to present practical ways that can be done at the District Hospital or Health Center if the affected family has difficulty attending the treatment at the General Hospital or University Hospital. Since Malaysia is still lacking in rehabilitation, especially the way it works, the knowledge presented in this book is useful for nurses to help the recovery program be more effective.

Cite this Article: Iqbal U. Child Development Assessment: a Guide to Nurses. Int J Neurol Dis. 2018;2(1): 022-023.

Published: 01 December 2018

Research Article: On Regional Differences of Brain Functions: in the Light of Metabesity

Fred C C Peng1* and Virginia M Peng2

Purpose: In "Dementia in epilepsy: a clinical contribution to the metabesity of epileptology, geriatrics and gerontology" (Peng, 2017a) the author attributes a case of pathology to metabesity, in line with its original idea of the sharing of metabolic roots among differing neurological disorders. We now wish to extend in this article the notion of metabesity to include brain functions of normal healthy people for two objectives: (1) review of the regional differences of brain functions as claimed in the literature and (2) anatomo-neurophysiological details of metabesity when it is applied to behaviors in normal healthy people.
Reason: The reason is that brain functions have been a keen subject for intense inquiry in the history of not only neuroscience but also of philosophy in connection with the mind. In so doing, however, investigators in both have attempted to find or locate the solution of their investigations through one common inquiry "What Is Language and Where Is It Located?" without the awareness of the important and new idea of metabesity. But they - neuroscientists in particular - immediately encounter a couple of questions: (1) is language a form of behavior or not? (2) If so, what does it entail as behavior in the brain? To overcome the difficulties, neuroscientists have been using clinical cases, e.g., split-brain patients in epilepsy, to justify their claims of lateralization and localization of brain functions.
Method: In this article we shall attempt to point out that in the light of metabesity under normal conditions such should not be the case, and shall also list up the underlying reasons for the problems involved in order to come up with a plausible solution of problems or answer to (1) Regional Differences of Brain functions in Relation to (2) Language in the Brain as the most complex form of human behaviors.
Result: The first question of "Is language a form of behavior or not?" may sound simple, but the answer has puzzled thousands of investigators in varying disciplines with no consensus in sight. There are at least four obvious problems: (1) the lack of understanding that the nervous systems are structurally interrelated and functionally interdependent has been the major one; (2) hence, there is no proper understanding of what behavior is in relation to brain functions; (3) as a result, the meaning of what language is has varied from sublime to ridiculous in respect to aphasia; and (4) the recognition of sign language as a language in its true sense was not available before 1960, and therefore has not been dealt with in the brain, albeit some linguists have put it in the straightjacket of oral language to probe "sign language grammar" after 1960 [1].
Discussion and Conclusion: We shall attend to each one of these reasons in order to answer the questions raised. That is, regional differences of brain functions under normal conditions are only partially true when behavior is taken into consideration in respect to language because language in the brain, verbal and nonverbal, is behavior which is memory-governed, meaning-centered, and multifaceted, but that it had never been understood as such until Peng first pointed it out in 2005 [2]. But the mistake has perpetuated to this date, although there are clues of recognition that sign language impairment cannot be handled as "aphasia" since signers, deaf or not, are not immune to sign language disorders, and that sign language is not at all lateralized to the left hemisphere, as some psychologists in California attempted to claim any more than oral language is lateralized to the left or right hemisphere.
We shall then conclude that regional differences of brain functions as they now stand cannot account for behaviors under normal conditions when language as such is involved unless behaviors are properly understood especially when language in the brain is understood to include oral language, sign language and written language. In other words, this article attempts to rectify the current misunderstanding of regional differences regarding brain functions vis-a-vis behaviors especially language in the brain as behavior among others, e.g., music by neglecting the major role played by the brain stem and the cranial nerves therein and the brain functions of memory and cognition which to us are heads and tails of the same coin.

Cite this Article: Peng FCC, Peng VM. On Regional Differences of Brain Functions: in the Light of Metabesity. Int J Neurol Dis. 2018;2(1): 010-021.

Published: 13 October 2018

Case Report: Activation Profile of Pectoralis Major, Deltoid and Supraspinatus Muscle in Brachial Plexus Injury Patient with Shoulder Sublaxation using Shoulder Sling - a Case Report

Poly Ghosh1*, PK Lenka2 and Abhishek Biswas3

Brachial plexus lesions frequently lead to significant physical disability, psychologic distress, and socioeconomic hardship. Adult brachial plexus injuries can be caused by various mechanisms, including penetrating injuries, falls, and motor vehicle trauma. Often the diagnosis is delayed or ignored as the practitioner waits for some recovery. Expedient diagnosis and testing is the best means of maximizing functional return. Evaluators must remember that muscles will begin to undergo atrophy and lose motor end plates as soon as the proximal injury occurs [1].

Cite this Article: Ghosh P, Lenka PK, Biswas A, Activation Profile of Pectoralis Major, Deltoid and Supraspinatus Muscle in Brachial Plexus Injury Patient with Shoulder Sublaxation using Shoulder Sling - a Case Report. Int J Neurol Dis. 2018;2(1): 006-009.

Published: 18 May 2018

Research Article: The Role of Transcranial Doppler in the Assessment of Right-to-Left Shunt in Scuba Divers

Gian P. Anzola1*, Clara Bartolaminelli2, Sofia Fioravanti3, Paolo Lega4, Paolo Limoni5 and Pasquale Longobardi6

Introduction and Method: The presence of a Right-to-Left Shunt (RLS), most commonly produced by a patent foramen ovale, has been correlated to Decompression Illness (DI) in scuba divers and is suspected to increase the risk of suffering diving accidents. In the present study, RLS was comparatively investigated in a consecutive series of 309 divers with and without DI and in 97 healthy control subjects. All cases were submitted to Transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination. The presence of RLS was confirmed by pulmonary scintigraphy and / or echocardiographic tests if the RLS as assessed with TCD was large.
Results: The frequency of DI was the same in recreational and professional divers. DI positive were significantly older than DI negative divers (45 + 10 vs. 42 + 11 year old respectively, p = 0.047). Big shunts were statistically more frequent in DI positive (78%) than in DI negative (56%) divers, in DI positive than in controls (19%) and in DI negative than controls. Small shunts were more frequent in DI positive (42%) divers than in controls (20%), in DI negative (35%) divers than in controls, but not in DI positive compared with DC negative divers. The presence of a big shunt and age turned independent predictors of DI.

Cite this Article: Anzola GP, Bartolaminelli C, Fioravanti S, Lega P, Limoni P, et al. The Role of Transcranial Doppler in the Assessment of Right-to-Left Shunt in Scuba Divers. Int J Neurol Dis. 2018;2(1): 001-005.

Published: 18 March 2018

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