Volume 2 Issue 1

Research Article: Virucidal Activity of Hand Sanitizer against Ocular Isolates of Adenovirus

Jason G Hooton1, Kathleen A Yates2, Eric G Romanowski2 and Regis P Kowalski2*

Purpose: Since the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic of 2009, increasing attention has been paid to the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Significant research has been conducted regarding the formulation, use, and effectiveness against various types of bacteria and viruses. Adenovirus ocular infections such as Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis, follicular conjunctivitis (EKC), and pharyngeal conjunctival fever are common ocular viral infections that present a unique challenge to the ophthalmological community because of their hardiness and lack of effective treatment options. Prior research on the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to combat viral strains associated with EKC has either been limited in its scope or suffered from inadequate inactivation of antivirals during the testing phase. This study evaluated the virucidal activity of Purell Hand Sanitizer against adenovirus in vitro.
Methods: Log reduction, direct incubation antiviral assays were performed with both Purell Gel Hand Sanitizer and PBS control using stocks of Adenovirus 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37. Samples were inactivated and serially diluted at 10 seconds, 2 minutes, and 5 minutes and plated. Assays were done in duplicate.
Results: The hand sanitizer reached a 3-log10 decrease in viral titers at 10 seconds of exposure with adenovirus types 3, 5, 19, and 37. Two minutes of exposure was required to achieve similar results with 4 and 7a. Sufficient decrease was never achieved with type 8 despite 5 minutes of exposure.
Conclusion: Purell Gel Hand Sanitizer effectiveness is inconsistent across viral types typically associated with EKC and can potentially still be transmitted to other vectors.

Cite this Article: Hooton JG, Yates KA, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP. Virucidal Activity of Hand Sanitizer against Ocular Isolates of Adenovirus. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(1): 011-013.

Published: 17 September 2018

Research Article: Benefits of Multidisciplinary Team Approach to Infant Keratoprosthesis

James V. Aquavella* and Rachel Wozniak

Corneal opacities in infants and children pose unique management challenges. Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP) has been used in order to clear the visual axis and prevent amblyopia, but has been historically associated with high rates of graft failure and other complications [1,2].

Cite this Article: Aquavella JV, Wozniak R. Benefits of Multidisciplinary Team Approach to Infant Keratoprosthesis. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(1): 008-010.

Published: 06 July 2018

Case Report: Ptosis as the Main Presenting Sign in a Patient with Leigh Syndrome

Shira L. Robbins1* and Cristina Menicacci2

Leigh Syndrome is a fatal mitochondrial disease with variable ophthalmologic manifestations. Ptosis can be the initial sign in patients with this rare inherited neurometabolic disorder. Misdiagnosis of conditions including juvenile myasthenia gravis and congenital ptosis delay proper identification and palliative care. We present a noteworthy case of a 16-month-old girl with acquired progressive bilateral ptosis who was diagnosed with Leigh Syndrome after further work up suggested by our examination.

Cite this Article: Robbins SL, Menicacci C. Ptosis as the Main Presenting Sign in a Patient with Leigh Syndrome. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(1): 005-007.

Published: 29 June 2018

Review Article: A Growing Research Area of In vitro Cell Culture Technologies for Corneal Surface Regeneration: A Short Communication of Basic Steps to Cultivate Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells

Gamze Dereli Can1,2*

Cornea is the outermost anterior layer of the eye ball which has unique optical and physio-mechanical properties to maintain good vision. A stratified squamous epithelium is continued with the conjunctival epithelium in the limbal area and create a protective stratum on the ocular surface to defend internal structure from environmental threats [1]. The dynamic equilibrium of the epithelial turnover is maintained by limbal niche where the Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells (LESCs) reside in an excellent arrangement.

Cite this Article: Dereli Can G. A Growing Research Area of In vitro Cell Culture Technologies for Corneal Surface Regeneration: A Short Communication of Basic Steps to Cultivate Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(1): 001-004.

Published: 22 February 2018

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