Volume 2 Issue 1

Research Article: High Sensitivity C - Reactive Protein Levels are Associated with High Energy Intake, Processed Foods, Total Fat and Saturated Fats Intake in Children

Camile Boscaini, Milena Artifon, Lucia Campos Pellanda*

Objective: Food habits may be associated with inflammation, but there is little information about processed and ultra-processed foods in children. Thus, our aim was to investigate the relationship between processed and ultra-processed foods, energy intake, total fat and saturated fats intake and high sensitivity C - reactive protein levels (hs - CRP) in children.
Design: A cross-sectional study with a population-based cluster sample.
Setting: A southern Brazilian city.
Subjects: A total of 602 children aged 5-13 years were included. Food consumption was evaluated through food frequency questionnaire and two 24-h recall questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skin folds. Blood samples were collected to measure hs - CRP, Total Cholesterol (TC) and fractions, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose.
Results: hs - CRP values above 0.1 mg/dl were observed in 16.9%. Processed foods, energy intake, fat intake and saturated fat intake were associated with elevated values of hs - CRP, (PR: 2.46 - 95%IC: 1.20 - 5.04). (PR: 1.09 - 95% IC: 1.03 - 1.15), (PR: 1.14 - 95% IC: 1.04 - 1.25), (PR: 1.19 - 95% IC: 1.04 - 1.37), respectively. Body mass index, waist circumference, skin folds, insulin and high-density lipoprotein were increased in school children with hs - CRP levels above 0.1 mg/dl (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Body mass index, waist circumference, skin folds, insulin and high-density lipoprotein were associated with high sensitivity C - reactive protein levels.

Cite this Article: Boscaini C, Artifon M, Pellanda LC. High Sensitivity C - Reactive Protein Levels are Associated with High Energy Intake, Processed Foods, Total Fat and Saturated Fats Intake in Children. SRL Pediatr Neonatal Care. 2017;3(1): 017-023.

Published: 28 February 2017

Research Article: Affects of Adolescent Pregnancy on Health of Baby

N. Cinar* and D. Menekse

The effects of adolescent pregnancies on child health are discussed in this paper. In recent decades adolescent pregnancy has become an important health issue in many countries, both developed and developing. According to WHO data in 2010, there are nearly 1, 2 billion adolescents in the world, which consists of 20% of the world population. 85% of these adolescents live in developing countries. A pregnancy in adolescence, which is a period of transmission from childhood to adulthood with physical, psychological and social changes, has been a public health issue having an increasing importance. Individual, cultural, social, traditional or religious factors play a great role in adolescent pregnancies which are among risky pregnancies. In the related studies, it is obviously stated that adolescent pregnancies, compared to adult pregnancies, have a higher prevalence of health risks such as premature delivery, low birth weight newborn, neonatal complications, congenital anomaly, problems in mother-baby bonding and breastfeeding, baby negligence and abuse. As a result, it is clear that adolescent pregnancies have negative effects on the health of children. Both the society and the health professionals have major responsibilities on this subject. Careful prenatal and postnatal monitoring of pregnant adolescents and providing of necessary education and support would have positive effects on both mother and child health. In this review, we have discussed affects of adolescent pregnancy on the health of a baby.

Cite this Article: Cinar N, Menekse D. Affects of Adolescent Pregnancy on Health of Baby. SRL Pediatr Neonatal Care. 2017;3(1): 012-016.

Published: 22 February 2017

Research Article: Children with Special Health Care Needs: Resource Utilization in a Tertiary-Care Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Jacqueline C. Machado, Andre Raszynski, Balagangadhar R. Totapally*

Objective: To identify the prevalence, demographics, resource utilization, and outcomes of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU).
Methods: All children (< 21 years) admitted during a six-month period were included in the study. CSHCN were identified using the CSHCN screener and Federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau definition. Demographic data, Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM-2), and hospital mortality were recorded. Resource utilization was assessed by the use of health care services, the cumulative Therapeutic Intervention Severity Score, and hospital charges.
Results: The prevalence of CSHCN in our PICU was 67.5%. Gender distribution and insurance status were similar in CSHCN and previously healthy children. African American children were more likely to be classified as CSHCN (p < 0.002). Mortality risk, as assessed with PIM-2, and median PICU and hospital lengths of stay were higher in the CSHCN group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01; respectively). Resource utilization was higher among CSHCN, resulting in significantly higher hospital charges (median of $ 64,573 vs $ 27,319; p < 0.001). Compared to previously healthy children, CSHCN were more likely to receive intravenous medications, oral medications, antibiotics, bladder catheterization, arterial line placement, enteral tube feeding, central venous cannulation, and chest physiotherapy (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in mortality rate between the two groups (3% vs 2.1%; p > 0.05).
Conclusions: CSHCN represent a large proportion of PICU admissions and utilize significantly more intensive care resources. A higher proportion of African American children admitted to a PICU has special health care needs.

Cite this Article: Machado JC, Raszynski A, Totapally BR. Children with Special Health Care Needs: Resource Utilization in a Tertiary-Care Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. SRL Pediatr Neonatal Care. 2017;3(1): 001-011.

Published: 13 February 2017

Research Article: The Experience of Fathers having Premature Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Cinar N*, Kuguoglu S, Sahin S and Altinkaynak S

The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences from the birth of premature infants and required care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) terms of the father's perspective. This study is a pilot study that is carried out in a State Hospital in Sakarya/Turkey in January 2009. Seven fathers participated; their infants were premature and also required care in NICU. Data were collected through narrative interviews. A qualitative content analyze method was used to analyze the interviews. The fathers did not have any experience having prematurely born infant; it was entirely new and unexpected. Most of the fathers were worried to lose their infants because of birth earlier than expected. The fathers were protective over the mother and infant. Fathers have anxiety due to having less information about their infants. Furthermore, it is seen that cultural differences exist in participation to care for the baby. The fathers should be informed more about their infants and cultural differences should be taken into consideration in participation to care of infants.

Cite this Article: Cinar N, Kuguoglu S, Sahin S, Altinkaynak S. The Experience of Fathers having Premature Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. SRL Pediatr Neonatal Care. 2017;3(1): 001-005.

Published: 13 February 2017

Research Article: Time Trends in Complications of Prematurity and Respiratory Support 2002-2010 in Norway: Use of a National Patient Registry

Anne Lee Solevag* and Inger Cathrine Kann

Aim: To describe time trends in complications and respiratory support in Norwegian preterm infants 2002-2010. To discuss strengths and limitations of using a national patient registry in epidemiological research.

Methods: A total population study using data from The Norwegian national patient registry (NPR) 2002-2010. Temporal changes in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP), Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH), Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC), in-hospital mortality and respiratory support were measured in multivariate logistic regressions using 2002 as reference year and adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: The odds ratio (OR) of RDS increased 65% from 2002-2010 (p<0.001), whereas the OR of BPD decreased 52% (p<0.001). The OR of ROP and IVH decreased and then increased again. NEC and in-hospital mortality did not change. Use of mechanical ventilation decreased and continuous positive airway pressure increased slightly.

Conclusion: The time trends in RDS and BPD cannot be explained by changes in birth weight, gestational age and multiple birth. Changes in registration practices might be an explanation and the results should be interpreted with caution. The total population character with a high number of patients represents a strength of our study. NPR data can be used for generation of hypotheses to be further explored.

Cite this Article: Solevag AL, Kann IC. Time Trends in Complications of Prematurity and Respiratory Support 2002-2010 in Norway: Use of a National Patient Registry. SRL Pediatr Neonatal Care. 2017;2(1): 001-007.

Published: 03 January 2017

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