Volume 1 Issue 1

Research Article: Pulmonary Function Test Abnormalities in Obese Non-Asthmatic Children and Adolescents

Angela Webb, Roopa Siddaiah, Melodi Pirzada, Shahidul Islam, Christina Valsamis and Claudia Halaby*

Background: Obesity in children is a growing concern. There is little information on the effects of obesity on pulmonary function in non- asthmatic children.
Objectives: Identify abnormalities of Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT's) in a cohort of non-asthmatic obese children and if present note the correlation between the degree of abnormality and the severity of obesity.
Method: A cohort of 35 subjects underwent standardized PFT's [spirometer, static and dynamic lung volumes, and Diffusion Capacity for Carbon Monoxide (DLCO)]. Measurements were reported as percent predicted value for age, gender, height and ethnicity.
Results: 14 females and 21 males between 10 and 20 years of age were enrolled. The median BMI was 34.5 Kg/m2. . Isolated PFT abnormalities or abnormalities suggestive of lower airway obstructive defect or restrictive defect were noted in 20 patients (57%). Spiro metric measurements were generally unremarkable, with the exception of decreased in FEF25-75% in 9 subjects (25%), without direct correlation with BMI. Changes in static lung volumes suggestive of reduced respiratory system compliance was observed, with 16 subjects (45%) exhibiting a decrease in ERV and 6 subjects (17%) with decreased in FRC. DLCO/VA was increased in 12 participants (36.3%). A negative correlation between BMI and FRC (Rho -0.39, p-value 0.021) and BMI and DLCO/VA (Rho -0.42, p-value 0.015) was found.
Conclusion: In our cohort of obese, non-asthmatic children we observed PFT abnormalities suggestive of decreased respiratory system compliance and gas diffusion impairment that correlated with increasing BMI.

Cite this Article: Webb A, Siddaiah R, Pirzada M, Islam S, Halaby C, et al. Pulmonary Function Test Abnormalities in Obese Non-Asthmatic Children and Adolescents. Sci J Pulm Respir Med. 2017;1(1): 019-023.

Published: 18 September 2017

Research Article: Correlation between Ct and Histological Findings in Non-Neoplastic Interstitial Lung Diseases with UIP-Pattern and NSIP-Pattern

Giuseppe Guzzardi*, Michela Barini, Paolo Irico, Silvia Riva and Alessandro Carriero

Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the correlations between Computed Tomography (CT) and histological findings in subjects with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) with a Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) or Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) pattern in order to obtain a level of reliable diagnostic confidence that would make it possible to avoid the need for a lung biopsy.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved 11 patients with a CT and bioptic diagnosis of ILD (six males and five females aged 58-77 years) histologically divided into nine with a UIP pattern (six with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, two with chronic hypersensivity pneumonitis, and one with rheumatoid arthritis), and two with a NSIP pattern (one with idiopathic NSIP and one with scleroderma NSIP). The CT images of each subject were reviewed in order to evaluate the spatial distribution and type of lesions (e.g. reticulations, septal thickening, honeycombing, ground glass opacities and bronchiectasis), and the findings were then compared with the bioptic findings in order to see whether there were any correlations.
Results: In the subjects with a UIP pattern, the closest CT/biopsy correlations were reticulations and septal thickening (observed in 100% of the patients); the correlations of honeycombing (55%) and ground glass opacities (20%) were respectively moderate and poor. In the subjects with a NSIP pattern, the major finding was ground glass opacities.
Conclusions: In the case of patients with a correct clinical diagnosis whose radiological picture indicates "possible UIP", a confirmatory biopsy does not seem to be indicated. In patients with an NSIP pattern, a biopsy seems to be useful as this may be the initial manifestation of a UIP pattern.
Keywords: ILD; UIP; NSIP; Pulmonary Biopsy; Interstitial Lung Disease

Cite this Article: Guzzardi G, Barini M, Irico P, Riva S, Carriero A. Correlation between Ct and Histological Findings in Non-Neoplastic Interstitial Lung Diseases with UIP-Pattern and NSIP-Pattern. Sci J Pulm Respir Med. 2017;1(1): 011-018.

Published: 15 September 2017

Research Article: A Fitness Profile: Differences in VO2 Maximum Fitness Levels in NCAA Division I Female Freshman and Returning Upperclassmen Soccer Field Players

Thomas G. Palmer*, Robert E. Mangine, Jon Divine and Samantha O'Loughlin

Aerobic fitness for female soccer players at the National Collegiate Athletic Associate (NCAA) Division I level has been under represented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the VO2 maximal fitness levels (VO2Max) at pre-season for incoming Division I collegiate freshman (n = 19) female soccer field players compared to returning players (n = 27). Preseason VO2 Max measures were collected and compared over two separate seasons. Significant differences were seen between freshman and returning upperclassman players in ml/kg/min and metabolic efficiency (METS) (p < .05). There were no significant differences between separate incoming freshman classes'VO2 maximum tests in ml/kg/min, (p = .72) however there were significant improvements in freshman ml/kg/min following one year of participation at the college level (p = .01). A large training Effect Size (ES) was noted in VO2 Max for freshman (ES = > 1.4) compared over one year. Metabolic efficiency (METS) was significantly improved among returners (p = .02). The nearly 15% difference in ml/kg/min and METS indicates that Division I female freshman soccer players do not likely meet maximum levels of oxygen uptake and metabolic aptitude until later in their careers. VO2 Max testing is a vital metric for NCAA Division I female freshman soccer field players and is critical in monitoring the metabolic properties as it relates to training and preparation for women's soccer.

Cite this Article: Palmer T. A Fitness Profile: Differences in VO2 Maximum Fitness Levels in NCAA Division I Female Freshman and Returning Upperclassmen Soccer Field Players. Sci J Pulm Respir Med. 2017;1(1): 006-010.

Published: 31 August 2017

Letter to Editor: Co-Infection of Dengue Fever, Aspergillosis and Mycobacterium Avium Complex in an Aged Patient with Pneumonia

Wen-Liang*

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a potentially fatal infectious complication among immune compromised patients. Patients in post-dengue status may develop IPA. Literature review has alerted clinicians that all cases of Aspergillus infections with concurrent or after dengue have had fatal outcomes [1-4].

Cite this Article: Wen-Liang. Co-Infection of Dengue Fever, Aspergillosis and Mycobacterium Avium Complex in an Aged Patient with Pneumonia. Sci J Pulm Respir Med. 2017;1(1): 004-005.

Published: 31 August 2017

Case Report: Evolution and Obstetric Outcome in An Adolescent With Cystic Fibrosis Monitored by A Reference Center in Brazil:A Case Report

Larissa Fraga Jaconianni, Roseli de Souza Santos da Costa and Celia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves*

Several parameters such as the pre-pregnancy pulmonary status, forced vital capacity, nutritional status, pancreatic insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, frequent respiratory exacerbations and colonisation with Burkholderiacepacia have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Despite of these aspects, careful monitoring by a multidisciplinary team in a reference center contributes to a successful pregnancy. We report successful pregnancy in adolescent with cystic fibrosis in Brazil.
Key words: Cystic fibrosis; Adolescent pregnancy; Nutritional care.

Cite this Article: Chaves C. Evolution and Obstetric Outcome in An Adolescent With Cystic Fibrosis Monitored by A Reference Center in Brazil:A Case Report. Sci J Pulm Respir Med. 2017;1(1): 001-003.

Published: 30 August 2017

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