Volume 2 Issue 2

Research article: A 4-Week Resistance Training Intervention Improves Stability, Strength and Neuromuscular Activity in the Lower Limb: A Case Study of a Cerebral Palsy Adult

Arran McManus, Matthew Bembridge, James Scales, Jonathan D. Wiles, Damian A. Coleman and Jamie M. O'Driscoll*

Spastic diplegia, a form of cerebral palsy, is a neurological disorder that results in some degree of spasticity. It is often associated with impairment of both normal and selective movement of the lower limbs, and some degree of muscular weakness. Resistance training is an established exercise intervention with numerous neurological benefits. Evidence suggests that resistance training can positively improve stability in young populations with cerebral palsy. However, little research exists in adult populations, who are at greater risk of inactivity due to ageing and an increase in sedentarism. A single-subject (aged 35-years old, 150.5 centimetres, 81 kilograms) case-study was therefore carried out to investigate the effectiveness of a 4-week resistance training intervention on stability, neuromuscular activity and force output in a male adult with cerebral palsy. The variables measured were total centre of pressure displacement, peak torque in both the quadriceps and hamstrings and Surface Electromyography (sEMG) activity in the Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST). The results demonstrated that a 4-week resistance training intervention reduced total centre of pressure displacement (-51.34%) whilst concomitantly increased sEMG output (RF left +80% right +22%, VL left +160% right +26%, BF left +203% right +44%, ST left +40% right +90%) and peak torque values (right leg extension -7%, right leg flexion +29%, left leg extension +11%, left leg flexion +42%). In conclusion, this case study demonstrates that a 4-week resistance training intervention improves the stability of the participant, possibly through neurological adaptations and improvements to lower limb strength.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy; Motor unit recruitment; Neural adaptations; Spastic diplegia

Cite this Article: McManus A, Bembridge M, Scales J, Wiles JD, Coleman DA, et al. A 4-Week Resistance Training Intervention Improves Stability, Strength and Neuromuscular Activity in the Lower Limb: A Case Study of a Cerebral Palsy Adult. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2018;2(2): 050-055

Published: 20 August 2018

Case Report: Is Vitamin D Low in Tibia Tuberosity Avulsion Fractures?

Barbara Minkowitz*, Jennifer R. Ristic, Todd P. Pierce, Vincent K. McInerney and Anthony J. Scillia

Background: Vitamin D is important during the developmental phases of bone maturity. Tibia tuberosity fractures are an uncommon sports injury caused by contraction of the quadriceps muscles against the tibia tuberosity. It is hypothesized that bone fragility is a part of this injury due to the indirect mechanism.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess 25(OH) vitamin D levels in pediatric tibia tuberosity fractures.
Methods: Twelve male patients aged 13-16 years old underwent treatment for tibia tuberosity avulsion fracture and had 25(OH) vitamin D levels collected. The mean 25(OH) vitamin D level was compared to a pre-existing cohort of 662 healthy control patients and 369 patients with other fracture types from the same demographic area.
Results: Mean 25(OH) vitamin D level in the study group was 22.38 ng/ mL + 6.46 (range, 14-29.9 ng/ mL). The healthy control group had a mean 25(OH) vitamin D level of 27.9 ng/ mL + 9.1 (p - value 0.01). The control group of other fracture types had a mean 25(OH) vitamin D level of 27.5 ng/ mL + 8.9 (p - value 0.017). All tibia tuberosity avulsion fracture patients had 25(OH) vitamin D level below the Endocrine Society recommended values (40-60 ng/ mL). Five patients (38.5%) had 25(OH) vitamin D levels < 20 ng/ mL.
Conclusions: Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels may contribute to avulsion fractures at the ligament-bone interface. Future studies should be larger to validate these findings and explore the importance of bone health in tibia tuberosity fractures.

Cite this Article: Minkowitz B, Ristic JR, Pierce TP, McInerney VK, Scillia AJ. Is Vitamin D Low in Tibia Tuberosity Avulsion Fractures? Int J Sports Sci Med. 2018;2(2): 047-049.

Published: 04 August 2018

Research Article: Comparative the Effect of TRX and Pilates Training Programs on the Balance of Futsal Players

Javad Shavikloo*, Nader Samami and Aliasghar Norasteh

The balance is an integral part of many daily activities and sports skills. In Futsal, the weakness in preserving the balance predicts many of the common injuries in the lower limb. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of TRX, and Pilates training programs on the balance of Futsal players. The present study was carried out with pre-test and post-test design, which was performed on 36 Futsal players. The statistical sample of the study was available to the Futsal players from Qazvin who, were selected randomly and divided into three groups that one group performing TRX (i.e., total body resistant exercise) training program and another group performing Pilates training and also one control group (each group was 12). The training groups performed exercises for six weeks and three sessions per week for 60 minutes. During the same period, the control group performed their routine training program during the research period (six weeks). Before and after the training programs, the dynamic balance was measured using the star excursion balance test. The statistical analysis was performed with One-Way and, Two-way Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni Post-Hoc (SPSS, version 23.0). According to the results, after performing a six-week core strength training in the TRX training group and Pilates training group, the improvement was observed in dynamic balance. Although there was no significant difference in post-test between the two intervention groups, but Pilates exercises were most effective in improving balance. As a result, it is recommended that trainers should use these exercises to improve athletic performance and balance.
Keywords: TRX training; Pilates training; Core strength; Postural balance; Futsal

Cite this Article: Shavikloo J, Samami N, Norasteh A. Comparative the Effect of TRX and Pilates Training Programs on the Balance of Futsal Players. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2018;2(2): 042-046.

Published: 06 July 2018

Review Article: The Efficacy of High Volume Image Guided Injections in Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy: a Systematic Review

Ruben de Carvalho1*, Katrijn Smulders2 and Marina Obradov Rajic3

Introduction: Patellar Tendinopathy (PT) is an overuse condition most often seen in elite athletes enrolled in jumping sports. Presently, the pathological model of tendinopathies envolves inflammation mediated responses in which neovascularization plays an import role. High Volume Image Guided Injection (HVIGI) has been considered as a treatment option for chronic patellar tendinopathy, consisting of the high volume of fluid injection targetting the area of neovascularization at the interface between the tendon and the Hoffa fat pad.
Objective: The main goal of this paper was to review the effectiveness of high-volume image-guided injections in the management of patellar tendinopathy.
Material and Methods: A systematic review addressing the clinical question according to the PICO model was performed in May 5 2018, using the most relevant electronic databases. We included studies about HVIGI in the adult population with at least 5 patients which had full text available in the English language. Excluded were papers consisting of systematic reviews or meta-analysis, case reports, congress posters or abstracts.
Results: We found 4 suitable papers matching our criteria. These studies had several limitations in design and execution, all of them with a low level of evidence, nevertheless, all showed evidence of neovascularization disruption, pain relief and statistically significant improvement in function measured by the VISA-P scores and also very low complication rate.
Conclusion: Despite all these studies have shown benefits in the utilization of HVIGI in the management of chronic recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy, the available literature is scarce with only limited studies of suboptimal quality of evidence. High-quality randomized control trials are needed.
Keywords: High volume image guided injection; Tendinopathy; Patellar tendon; Chronic patellar tendinopathy; Injection; Ultrasound

Cite this Article: de Carvalho R, Smulders K, Rajic MO. The Efficacy of High Volume Image Guided Injections in Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy: a Systematic Review. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2018;2(2): 036-041.

Published: 06 July 2018

Research Article: Effects Over 24Hr of Exercise Targeted on Lipid versus Carbohydrate Oxidation on Eating Behaviour in Normal Weight Volunteers

Marie Guiraudou, Amira Cherif, Marlene Richou, Thibault Fidani, Ahmed-Jerome Romain, Jacques Mercier, Eric Raynaud de Mauverger and Jean-Frederic Brun*

Exercise reverses muscular metabolic defects involved in the impairment of lipids oxidation in obesity, and modifies eating habits, exerting both an orexigenic and a satietogenic effect.
Our working hypothesis is that the orexigenic effect, which is triggered by glycogen depletion and high intensity exercise, is minimized when exercise is performed at the level of the LIPOXmax, and thus uses lipids and spares glycogen. Accordingly, its weight-lowering effect could be related to a mostly satietogenic with little orexigenic effect, while exercises at higher intensities would be more orexigenic because of an important use of carbohydrates.
We studied over 24 hours the effects of an exercise targeted by exercise calorimetry, in 10 normal weight volunteers. Subjects performed at random order three sessions: 45 minutes of steady state exercise targeted on the LIPOXmax, an isoenergetic exercise targeted at the LIPOXzero (exercise intensity in which there is no longer lipid oxidation and only carbohydrate oxidation) and a morning without exercise.
The evolution of appetite and satiety is measured with an analogous visual scale (Hill and Blundell). Capillary blood glucose is also measured. 20 minutes after exercise and after the morning without activity a meal test is proposed, along with a scale of palatability.
Energy ingested over the 24 hours is calculated with a food notebook filled by the subjects.
In these subjects after the LIPOXmax session, the following breakfast contains fewer calories and fewer carbohydrates. After the LIPOXzero session, the breakfast remains unchanged. Blood glucose decreases during the LIPOXzero session and remains stable during the LIPOXmax session. When the blood glucose decreases there is a parallel increase in hunger.
These findings are in agreement with our working hypothesis. Orexigenic effects of exercise mostly occur at levels where carbohydrate oxidation predominates, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose. On the other hand, satietogenic effects prevail at exercise levels close to the LIPOXmax, where lipid oxidation results in a sparing of carbohydrates.
The paradox of the fair weight-reducing effect of moderate volumes of LIPOXmax exercise in spite of its low intensity, while exercise at higher intensities is deceiving for this purpose unless it is used at high volumes, is likely to be due (at least in part) to their different effects on eating behaviour.
Keywords: Obesity; Exercise; LIPOXmax; Metabolism; Lipids oxidation; Appetite; Satiety

Cite this Article: Guiraudou M, Cherif A, Richou M, Fidani T, Romain AJ, et al. Effects Over 24Hr of Exercise Targeted on Lipid versus Carbohydrate Oxidation on Eating Behaviour in Normal Weight Volunteers. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2018;2(2): 031-035.

Published: 29 June 2018

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