Volume 1 Issue 1

Research Article: Combining RPL27 with OAZ1 or RPL8 as Universal Normalizers of Gene Expression in Canine Endometrial Studies

Georg Mair, Hermann Unger and Cordula Gabriel*

Background: The canine endometrium represents a complex, heterogeneous tissue with several cell populations featuring divergent gene expression patterns that become of high interest during cyclic hormonal stimulation, or in response to pathogen-activated immunological activation like in the case of pyometra. Assuming that reference gene expression stability is not shared between the different endometrial cell types, a whole tissue-based approach may not be adequate. Dependable qRT-PCR quantification of endo- or exogenously induced transcript me changes is primarily reinforced by normalisation with reference genes. Thorough evaluation of these endogenous controls is important, but has so far been insufficiently addressed, especially in reproductive veterinary medicine. Often, reference gene selection relies on results obtained with other species, or considers only tissue and not cell-specific results.
Results: We evaluated the stability of nine putative reference genes in healthy and pyometra-affected canine uterine tissue homogenates, and the respective endometrial cell types. For cell-specific analysis endometrial stromal and epithelial cells were either isolated via Laser-Capture Micro dissection (LCM) from tissue cryo sections or cultivated under hormonal stimulation in vitro. While single-gene stability ranking did not present a universal solution, the inclusion of arbitrary normalizers composed of the geometric mean of paired genes computed by group-specific Norm Finder analysis showed that using RPL27 combined with either RPL8 or OAZ1 resulted in remarkable stability values. Both arbitrary reference genes were top-ranked in the tissue and cell culture data sets, and were useful especially for the highly variable LCM samples.
Conclusion: The combination of RPL27 with either RPL8 or OAZ1 was successfully identified as best working normalizer in gene expression data acquisition of different sample types of the canine endometrium.

Cite this Article: Mair G, Unger H, Gabriel C. Combining RPL27 with OAZ1 or RPL8 as Universal Normalizers of Gene Expression in Canine Endometrial Studies. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2017;1(1): 023-034.

Published: 22 September 2017

Research Article: The Specifics of the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones of Horses under Conditions of iodine and Selenium Deficiency

Alesya Aleksandrovna Bakhta* and Larisa Y Karpenko

The purpose of this research was to study the characteristics of iodine, selenium and thyroid hormones metabolism of horses and the influence of mineral supplement "Chelavite" use on these values of horses. The experimental part of work was realized in equestrian club "Lada" (Leningrad region, North-Western region of the Russian Federation). Apparently healthy horses of 5-12 years old were the object of research. During the research two groups were formed - experimental group and control one. Each group included 15 heads. The animals were taken into the groups according to the pair-analogues method. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for horses of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0,6 ml for 10kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The animals of control group have not been given the mineral supplement "Chelavite". The results of the researches have shown that the horses' state before the beginning of the experiment can be considered to be euthyroid. After using the mineral supplement "Chelavite" the content of protein-bound iodine in blood has been repaired as well as the balance of T3 and T4 in blood, the selenium level has increased. This allows to conclude that the use of selenium and iodine together leads to optimization of their homeostasis and thyroid metabolism improvement. Thus, this preparation may be recommended as a preventive and treatment agent of iodine and selenium deficiency of horses.

Cite this Article: Bakhta AA, Karpenko LY. The Specifics of the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones of Horses under Conditions of iodine and Selenium Deficiency. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2017;1(1): 020-022.

Published: 23 September 2017

Review Article: Characteristics of Traditional Turkish Fermented Soudjouk and Current Situation

Bulent Nazli*, Halime Pehlivanoglu and Muhammed Y. Caglar

In this review study, it is aimed to give an information about the current situation and characteristics of the Traditional Turkish Fermented Soudjouk which has been known since ancient times and consumed with appreciation by the people of our country.
For this reason, the information was gathered on the importance for health and nutrition of traditional Turkish fermented soudjouk and its production technology, sensory, physico-chemical, microbiological characteristics and its current situation and was given in accordance with a certain plan.
According to this, in soudjouks produced without heat treatment, it was determined that its characteristics which subject consumer liking of soudjouk was formed the result of fermentation that occured in completely natural conditions.
In parallel with the information gathered, it has been concluded that the traditional Turkish Fermented soudjouk is a useful product for nutrition and health due to valuable nutrients and probiotic microorganisms included and so the presence of the product should be protected and its geographical marking as a national product should be made in Turkey.

Cite this Article: Nazli B, Pehlivanoglu H, Caglar MY. Characteristics of Traditional Turkish Fermented Soudjouk and Current Situation. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2017;1(1): 013-019.

Published: 13 September 2017

Research Article: Triton X-100 Vs. Triton X-114: Isolation of Outer Membrane Proteins from Leptospira Spp.

Angel A. Noda*, Osmel Fleitas, Islay Rodriguez, Jorge F. Beltran, Rosabel Falcon, Tatiana Almaguer and Samaha TH

Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira spp., is a disease of worldwide significance affecting millions of people annually. The outer membrane of Leptospira facilitates direct interactions with the surroundings and contains important molecules involved in infection, transmission, survival, and adaptation to environmental conditions. The results showed that Triton X-100 can extract outer membrane protein without co extraction of inner membrane or cellular protein as evidenced by the absence of cell lysis. The comparison with existing Triton X-114 method showed that Triton X-100 is more selective in partitioning protein into the detergent phase. Our results establish a broadly applicable strategy for the preparation of outer membrane proteins of Leptospira, an essential step in the identification of potential virulence factors, diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates.
Keywords: Leptospira; Triton X-100; Triton X-114; Membrane Protein Isolation

Cite this Article: Noda AA, Fleitas O, Rodriguez I, Beltran JF, Falcon R, et al. Triton X-100 Vs. Triton X-114: Isolation of Outer Membrane Proteins from Leptospira Spp. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2017;1(1): 007-012.

Published: 27 July 2017

Research Article: Pathomorphological Changes in the Spleen of Turkey Broilers Challenged with Aflatoxin B1 Alone or Co-Administered with Mycotox NG

Nelly Grozeva, Ivan Valchev, Rumen Binev*, Lazarin Lazarov, Tsanko Hristov and Dian Kanakov

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on spleen morphology after its independent application or in combination with a mycosorbent (Mycotox NB) in turkey broilers. Experiments was carried out with 60 female turkey broilers 7-day age (meat TM strain) and divided into one control and five treatment groups (n = 10). Groups were as followed: Group I - control (fed standard feed according to the species and age of birds); Group II - feed by supplement with 0.5 g/ kg Mycotox NG, Group III - feed by supplementation with - 0.2 mg/ kg aflatoxin B1, Group IV -feed supplementation with - 0.4 mg/ kg aflatoxin B1, Group V - fed by supplementation with - with 0.2 mg/ kg aflatoxin B1 and 0.5 g/ kg Mycotox NG and Group VI - fed by supplementation with - 0.4 mg/ kg aflatoxin B1 and 0.5 g/ kg Mycotox NG. The duration of the experiments was 42 days. Specimens were collected from the spleen of birds for histological examination after euthanasia by cervical dislocation, fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dehydrated in alcohol series and embedded into paraffin. The 3 μm cross sections were cut on a microtome (Leica RM 2235) and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Pathomorphological changes affected mainly the lymphatic tissue of germinative centres, whose number and size were reduced in birds from group IV and most cells exhibited degenerative (necrobiotic to necrotic) processes. In birds of group III, degenerative changes were less intensive (granular and vacuolar dystrophy) compared to the other groups. In birds off groups V and VI, the supplementation of toxin binder reduced partly the severity of morphological changes as congestion among lymphatic follicles in red and white pulp, slight granular and vacuolar dystrophy.

Cite this Article: Grozeva N, Valchev I, Binev R, Lazarov L, Hristov T, et al. Pathomorphological Changes in the Spleen of Turkey Broilers Challenged with Aflatoxin B1 Alone or Co-Administered with Mycotox NG. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2017;1(1): 001-006.

Published: 24 July 2017

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