Volume 3 Issue 1
In the United States (US), companion animals are categorized as major species and include dogs, cats, and horses. The US companion animal health sector is on a growth trajectory, driven by the rising popularity of pet ownership and the introduction of healthcare innovations converging with diverse therapeutic indications. Over the last decade, the introduction of drug crossovers from the human to animal healthcare sector has been increasing, especially for dogs and cats. Despite relatively lower population of companion animals compared to production animals, the trend has been to focus on this sector for the top pharma players, leading to an increase in product approvals. A trend of emergence of veterinary specific drugs has also been noticed in past few years. This article reviews various aspects of the companion health sector, including: key growth drivers, introduction of niche therapeutic targets, increasing drug crossovers, veterinary specific drugs, the companion animal drug development process, and high cost of animal drugs.
Keywords: Companion animals; FDA; CVM; Crossover drugs; Veterinary; Green book; Federal register notice
Cite this Article: Rajashree P. An Evolving Companion Animal Health Sector in the United States. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2018;3(1): 020-025.
Published: 22 August 2018
Heartwater is an acute, often fatal, non-contagious and tick-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. It is an important cause of death in cattle, sheep, and goats in regions where tick vectors are present. In Africa, heartwater is a major obstacle to the introduction of highly productive animals into endemic areas. The distribution of the disease follows a presence of vector Amblyomma, among them Amblyomma variegatum is the most important species which is widely distributed in the sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. The control of disease involves controlling the tick vector, establishing endemic stability, performing immunization by infection and treatment, and preventing the disease by regular administration of prophylactic antibiotics. Most of these methods are subject to failure for various epidemiological reasons, and serious disease outbreaks can occur. Prophylaxis is effective, but very expensive, and the logistics are daunting when large herds of animals are involved. The development of a safe, cheap and effective vaccine is the only way for controlling of heartwater. Generally, control of cowdriosis should consider using cost-effective, environmentally safe, sustainable and integrated control methods including establishment of endemic stability.
Keywords: Amblyomma; Endemic stability; Heartwater; Tick-borne disease; Vaccine
Cite this Article: Dinkisa G. Review on Control of Cowdriosis in Ruminants. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2018;3(1): 013-019.
Published: 30 July 2018
Research Article: Extraction and Partial Purification of Peroxidase Enzyme from Plant Sources for Antibody Labeling
Gutema Dinkisa Idesa* and Belayneh Getachew
This study was conducted from November 2016 to May 2017 in Mekelle to extract and partially purify peroxidase enzyme from Ipomoea batatas, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum lycopersicum, Daucus carota and Schinus molle for use in labeling of antibody. Partial purification was done with ammonium sulphate precipitation along with dialysis tubing and the activity of extracted plants enzyme was determined spectrophotometrically. An increase in peroxidase enzyme activity was observed from all plants after partial purification. Among the tested plants, Ipomoea batatas showed promising enzyme activity on crude extract with specific peroxidase activity of 479 u/mg. Solanum tuberosum resulted in highest peroxidase activity after partial purification with specific peroxidase activity of 2567.81 u/mg. Moderate enzyme activity was observed from both crude and partially purified extracts of Solanum lycopersicum with 353.42 u/mg and 1852.27 u/mg, respectively. The extracts of both Daucus carota and Schinus molle showed slight peroxidase activity before and after partial purification. The results suggest that Solanum tuberosum and Ipomoea batatas could be a rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Further studies on natural peroxidase rich plants with sophisticated techniques and a trial of conjugating this plant peroxidase to antibodies as labels for ELISAs are recommended.
Cite this Article: Idesa GD, Getachew B. Extraction and Partial Purification of Peroxidase Enzyme from Plant Sources for Antibody Labeling. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2018;3(1): 006-012.
Published: 18 May 2018
Bekenev VA*, Mager SN, Frolova VI, Muratov AA, Deeva VS, Bolshakova IV, Leiman DN, and Frolova YV
Three experiments were carried out to improve the characteristics of the production of Large White pigs (LW) meat, selected in Russia, according to various variants of crossing with the breed of Yorkshire (Y) and the Landrace (L).The experiments did not reveal a significant difference between the groups in the characteristics of reproduction. The growth rates of piglets of two breeds (LW x Y) were slightly higher than in purebreds (P < 0.05).In 2-breed pigs, the back fat thickness at a body weight of 100 kg was 26.3 mm compared to 30.7 mm for purebred pigs (P < 0.001), and the area of the muscular eye was 45.1 cm2 and 30.6 cm2, respectively (P < 0.001). As for hybrids of three- breeds (LW x Y) x L, the age of 100 kg of body weight was less by 12.5 days (P < 0.01), and the back fat thickness was 11, 4 mm less (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. In the replacement pigs obtained as a result of absorbent crossing (LW x Y) x Y, the back fat thickness 19.2 mm, which was higher than that of pure-bred Y pigs (13.0 mm) (P < 0.001), but thinner than LW of 7.6 mm. Absorbing crossing with the Y breed to the level of the 3rd generation allowed to obtain genotypes with a back fat thickness of 9-10 mm less in the gilts than in the LW breed. The fastest growing pigs had the highest rate of ??? blood system's edg/edf genotype (P < 0.05), but at the same time this genotype is characteristic of the pigs with high back fat thickness (?< 0.05). The experimental data show that to improve the quality of carcasses of pigs of LW of the breed of Russian breeding, it is possible to use different variants of their crossing with boars of the Y breed of Canadian breeding.
Cite this Article: Bekenev VA, Mager SN, Frolova VI, Muratov AA, Deeva VS, et al. Accelerated Improvement of Carcass Characteristics in Pigs. Int J Vet Sci Technol. 2018;3(1): 001-005.
Published: 09 January 2018
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