Volume 2 Issue 1

Research Article : Temporal-Spatial Model to Predict the Activity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children Under 5 Years Old from Climatic Variability in Cuba

Paulo Lazaro Ortiz Bulto*, Yazenia L. Vega, Odalys V. Ramirez, Belsy A. Herrera and Susana B. Gutierrez

Climate variability is a determinant within the environmental problems influencing the respiratory syncytial virus behavior that cause acute respiratory infections. In spite of the several researches worldwide, predictions of respiratory syncytial virus circulation related with climatic conditions are not yet available.
Objective: To propose spatial-temporal models with capacity to predict the respiratory syncytial virus behaviorand the areas of major viral activity in the country from climatic conditions.
Methods: An ecological study with prospective analysis of time series combined with spatial statistic was performed. Two indicators were considered: the Respiratory Syncytial Virus and the climatic variability described by the Bulto indexes. For the identification of the spatial structure the spatial weight matrix was used, calculated with the spatial weight by distance (with 20 km threshold). Spatial simulation was carried out with Simultaneous Autoregressive models. Concordance among real and predicted values was determined by a concordance index and the Skill factor.
Results: Both temporal and spatial models for prediction of the viral circulation from climatic conditions were proposed using the Bulto complex indexes. Temporal model ability: 0.89012 and Quadratic Mean Error: 7 cases; concordance value between real and predicted Respiratory Syncytial Virus activity: 0.9120 in years 2014-2017. Spatial model ability predicts are between 85% and 93%. The models allowed simulating the behavior of the respiratory syncytial virus, which is associated with the pattern of climatic variability to generate the prediction maps with viral activity areas.
Conclusions: Models for simulation and prediction of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in spatial and temporal scale from the climatic variability were proposed using of the Bulto complex indexes, which allow to alert changes in the viral activity and circulation with three months in advance, according to the response mechanism of their seasonal pattern in connection with the climatic variability identified for Cuba.

Cite this Article: Ortiz Bulto PL, Vega YL, Ramirez OV, Herrera BA, Gutierrez SB. Temporal-Spatial Model to Predict the Activity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children Under 5 Years Old from Climatic Variability in Cuba. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017;2(1): 030-037.

Published: 19 December 2017

Case Report : Cutaneous (wound) Diphtheria by Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. mitis - A Case

SR Shah*, R Das and Lahiri KK

Corynebacterium diphtheria is considered now as a remerging pathogen. Several outbreaks of cutaneous diphtheria in developing countries are reported with rise in cases. Nondiphtherial corynebacteria are commonly involved in cutaneous diphtheria. However, cutaneous diphtheria caused nontoxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovars have been seldom reported previously. We are addressing a rare case of cutaneous (wound) diphtheria in 36 years healthy male with a nonhealing wound, representing an area nonendemic for cutaneous diphtheria. Patient had a history of trauma and presented with a wound on supra malleolar region. Often coinfection exists in such wounds, and diagnosing a lesion as cutaneous diphtheria solely depends on demonstration and isolation of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae from it. Unusual isolation of nontoxigenic strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. mitis makes this case more interesting. Organisms were isolated and identified by routine cultural, automated and molecular methods. Patient responded well with oral Augmentin [Oxacillin (500mg.) plus potassium clavulanate (125mg.)] and Chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) dressings. No post diphtheritic sequelae were observed. This case reports highlights the role of laboratory tests to isolate, differentiate and to detect the toxigenic nature of Corynebacterium species from a nonhealing ulcers, emphasizing early and accurate diagnosis can have a significant impact on clinical outcome in an individual with cutaneous diphtheria. Detection of such cases can also be a concern, for the community health.

Cite this Article: Shah SR, Das R, Lahiri KK. Cutaneous (wound) Diphtheria by Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. mitis - A Case Report. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017;2(1): 025-024.

Published: 19 December 2017

Research Article: Molecular Analysis of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Risk of Cervical Carcinoma among Women in Southwest of the Republic of Congo: A Case-Control Study

Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba*, Donatien Moukassa, Samira Z. Assoumou, Lahoucine Hilali and Moulay M. Ennaji

A common polymorphism of p53 gene at codon 72 in exon 4 has been associated with increased risk in wide variety of human cancers. The arginine homozygous genotype has been reported as risk factor to HPV-related cervical carcinoma, although many studies have failed to confirm this hypothesis. This study aimed to analyze the role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism for cervical carcinoma risk in Congolese women from southwest of Congo. Samples from 106 women, 56 cervical carcinomas confirmed histologically and 50 healthy controls were analyzed by allele-specific PCR assay. HPV-DNA were detected by nested-PCR using MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ universal primers, followed by typing with type-specific primers for HPV 16 and 18. HPV-DNA was detected in 96.4% (54/56) of case group and 32% (16/50) of control. HPV16 and HPV18 were detected in 62.9% and 7.4% in the case group, and in 43.7% and 6.2% in control. Genotypes frequencies of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro were 69.6, 21.4 and 9.0% in the cervical carcinomas and 52.0, 40.0 and 8.0% in the control. Allele frequencies of Arg and Pro were 0.80 and 0.20 in case group and 0.72 and 0.28 in the control respectively. We observed no significant association in the distribution of p53 codon 72 genotypes polymorphism between cases versus control group (p > 0.05). Our results showed that the codon 72 polymorphism p53 Arg would not be associated with an increased risk of developing cervical carcinoma among women in the Southwestern of Congo.

Cite this Article: Anicet Boumba LM, Moukassa D, Assoumou SZ, Hilali L, Ennaji MM. Molecular Analysis of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Risk of Cervical Carcinoma among Women in Southwest of the Republic of Congo: A Case-Control Study. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017;2(1): 021-024.

Published: 13 November 2017

Research Article: Impact of Climatic Variability in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pattern in Children Under 5 Years-Old Using the Bulto Climatic Index in Cuba

Yazenia L. Vega, Odalys V. Ramirez, Belsy A. Herrera, Paulo Lazaro Ortiz Bulto*

Background: In spite of the numerous researches and efforts made worldwide, there are still few studies in which information on climatic variability is used to understand the seasonal pattern of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) with a spatial - temporal scale. The objective of this study was to determine the association level between the RSV seasonality and the climatic variations in its spatial-temporal behavior.
Method: An ecological study using retrospective analyses of time series combined with spatial statistics was carried out. The series of RSV between 2010-2015 in children under 5 years-old and climatic indicators using climate variability and seasonal anomalies were analyzed by means of the Bulto-1 and 2 complex climatic indexes (BIs). To identify the areas of hot and cold spots a weight matrix by the "Queen" method of second-order contiguity was used. Spatial autocorrelation using global and local Moran's Index was examined.
Results: A clear seasonal pattern of RSV was obtained, corresponding to the rainy climatic pattern. The higher viral circulation was observed during September-October, when the climatic anomalies increase. Through the BIs, a cumulative effect of the climate until 3 months was evidenced in the RSV. A high non-linear association between seasonality of climate variability and RSV was observed through BIs. An influence of the climate on the distribution of the virus was evidenced, with a strong positive spatial correlation (Moran's I ? 0.7 during October in the central region).
Conclusions: There is a high association between the RSV seasonality and climatic variability. RSV circulates during the whole year, but not always in all provinces. The areas of higher virus circulation overlap with those in favorable climatic characteristics according to BIs. The months of higher virus activity correspond with the rainy season characterized by high temperatures, humidity and precipitation.

Cite this Article: Vega YL, Ramirez OV, Herrera BA, Ortiz Bulto PL. Impact of Climatic Variability in the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pattern in Children Under 5 Years-Old Using the Bulto Climatic Index in Cuba. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017;2(1): 014-019.

Published: 05 October 2017

Research Article: Conformational Modulation of Transmembrane Segments of a Protein (CorA) By Effective Media

Sunan Kitjaruwankul, Panisak Boonamnaj, Sunita S. Paudel, Warin Jetsadawisut, Pornthep Sompornpisut, and RB Pandey*

Background: The membrane protein CorA from Thermotoga maritima (TmCorA) is known to be a funnel-shaped homopentamer. This magnesium channel protein spans across the membrane and has well-defined functions of its inner (iCorA) and outer (oCorA) membrane segments. It is not feasible to achieve large-scale structural response of CorA embedded in a bilayer lipid membrane in presence of solvent even with large-scale traditional MD simulations. Coarse-graining becomes unavoidable to investigate large-scale structural response. An efficient coarse-grained approach that involves knowledge-based residue-residue interaction, a set of residue interaction with its surrounding in an effective medium, and a bond-fluctuating mechanism with ample degrees of freedom is used to study large-scale structural response of iCorA and oCorA.
Results: Conformational response of the inner (iCorA) and outer (oCorA) segments of a transmembrane protein is studied by a coarse-grain Monte Carlo simulation in effective media for a range of its interaction strength (f) with the protein residues in native and denatured phases. The radius of gyration of iCorA is found to decrease in native phase and increase in denature phase before reaching saturations as a function of interaction strength. The outer membrane segment shows opposite response to effective interaction. Modulation of the protein structure is enhanced by the hydrophobic media. Analysis of the structure factor shows that the inner segment retains its globular conformation for most of the media interaction except at high temperature in a weakly interacting medium; hydrophobic interactions with the effective medium accentuate the structural response. The outer segment retains its random-coil conformations for almost all interaction range and its radius of gyration does not seem to be affected by the hydrophobic media. Self-organizing globular and fibrous segments of iCorA, critical in its conformational modulation, are identified from the residue contact profiles.
Conclusions: The interaction strength of the effective medium in which the protein is embedded has strong influence in modulating its conformation, degree and nature of which depend on the range of temperatures, i.e., low and high range in native and denatured phases, respectively.
Keywords: CorA protein; Effective media; Coarse-grained approach; Monte Carlo

Cite this Article: Kitjaruwankul S, Boonamnaj P, Paudel SS, Jetsadawisut W, Pandey RB, et al. Conformational Modulation of Transmembrane Segments of a Protein (CorA) By Effective Media. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017;2(1): 008-013.

Published: 05 September 2017

Review Article: Structures and Functions of Coronavirus Proteins: Molecular Modeling of Viral Nucleoprotein

Tugba Taskin Tok*, Gizem Tatar

Background: In recent times, several life-threatening viruses have emerged and coronaviruses (CoVs) are one of these. They have infected a variety of human and animal hosts, causing illnesses that range from mostly upper respiratory tract infections in human, encephalitis and demyelination in animals, which can be fatal. They have been responsible for causing significant human and animal mortality, in addition to raising serious public health concerns worldwide. Two novel viruses Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS- CoV) were implicated to be responsible for severe acute illness in recent times. Unfortunately, no effective treatments against these viruses are available.
Results: There is an urgent need to develop new strategies to prevent or control coronavirus infections, and understanding the biology, replication, and pathogenesis of these viruses. Therefore, in this review we have described CoVs proteins structure and functions with experimental and computational studies.
Conclusion: This information may lead to a better understanding of the function of CoV proteins in the virus replication and transcription mechanism and to develop pioneering antivirals.

Cite this Article: Tok TT, Tatar G. Structures and Functions of Coronavirus Proteins: Molecular Modeling of Viral Nucleoprotein. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017;2(1): 001-007.

Published: 26 June 2017

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