Volume 1 Issue 1

Research Article: Biofilm Models for Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents for Inhibition of Plaque Growth

Moon M. Kim*

Although a variety of antimicrobials have been added to oral care to remove the plaque known as a major cause of caries, it is impossible to inhibit the growth of plaque, a kind of biofilm, because of their low penetration into biofilm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of essential oils on growth of plaque biofilm using several biofilm developed as in vitro model. Methods: various kinds of biofilm simulating a natural oral biofilm on glass rod and hydroxyapatite were designed to compare the anti-biofilm effect of essential oils with that of antibacterial compounds. The effects of essential oils such as thymol, eugenol and clove oil on biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans were compared with that of triclosan used as a positive control. The essential oils exhibited an antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans in dextran biofilm in addition to antibacterial effect in short time. In particular, thymol showed a higher inhibitory effect on biofilm growth on glass rod than triclosan. In addition, thymol displayed the same antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans in poloxamer biofilm and hydroxyapatite biofilm as that of triclosan. Above findings indicate that the several biofilm models designed in this study are available for evaluation of novel anti-biofilm agent, suggesting that they could be applicable to develop oral care such as toothpaste and mouthrinse for inhibition of plaque biofilm.

Cite this Article: Kim MM. Biofilm Models for Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents for Inhibition of Plaque Growth. Sci J Biol. 2017;1(1): 019-024.

Published: 13 December 2017

Research Article: Exogenous Administration of Nitric Oxide Ameliorate CCl4 Induced Liver Injury through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Gibran Ali and Asima Tayyeb*

Liver fibrosis is characterized by scar tissue due to the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins generated by activated Hepatic Stellate Cells (aHSCs). The mechanism of selective apoptosis of aHSCs by Nitric Oxide (NO) can provide a breakthrough in liver therapeutics. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of NO released by Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) on aHSCs and reduction of liver fibrosis induced by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4). Isolated HSCS in both quiescent (qHSCs) and aHSCs were treated with 250 μM SNP. Cell viability assay, RT-PCR and Annexin V staining were performed to access the apoptotic effect of SNP. Mouse liver fibrosis model was prepared by injecting CCl4.
1 μl/g body weight for four weeks. After fibrosis induction, mice were treated with 50 mM/kg or 100 mM/kg body weight SNP for four weeks along with CCl4 injections. Blood and liver tissues were analysed for liver functions and fibrosis. In vitro results indicated increased apoptotic response in aHSCs after treatment with 250 μM SNP compared to qHSCs. CCl4-injured mice treated with 100mM SNP showed down regulation of fibrotic markers; aSMA, TIMP, NFkB, iNOS, collagen IaI. Whereas, the expression of hepatic markers; albumin, CK18, eNOS were upregulated in 100mM SNP treated group. Sirius red staining demonstrated the reduction of liver fibrosis. Decreased serum concentration of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase confirmed improved liver functions. Above findings not only improve our understanding of the anti-fibrotic role of SNP but also provide foundation for the development of new anti-fibrotic treatment.

Cite this Article: Ali G, Tayyeb A. Exogenous Administration of Nitric Oxide Ameliorate CCl4 Induced Liver Injury through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cells. Sci J Biol. 2017;1(1): 011-018.

Published: 05 October 2017

Research Article: Study of Variations in SNAP25 Protein Levels in Serum of Diabetic Patients

Jazar Hassan, Abolfathi Aliakabar and Seyed R. Arefhosseini*

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a common problem in human society; it is a metabolic and multi-factorial disorder disease that endangers public health and lifestyle play an important role in its onset.
However, SNAP25 Protein is one of the Abnormalities that may play important role in its affection.
Its disruption causes disturbances in the plasma membrane structure and consequently type of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects, 50 diabetes and 40 healthy volunteers, were studied. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and serum SNAP25 were measured by, Immunoturbidimetry and assessed by Auto analyzer Elisa method, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the SNAP25 levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients than healthy individuals, and inversely and significant correlation was found with FBS and HbA1C level.
Conclusion: These results showed that the assessment of SNAP25, could be considered as a valuable indicator for Type 2 diabetes. And also could be considerate as an important factor in Etiology of Diabetes Type 2.

Cite this Article: Hassan J, Aliakabar A, Arefhosseini SR. Study of Variations in SNAP25 Protein Levels in Serum of Diabetic Patients. Sci J Biol. 2017;1(1): 008-010.

Published: 07 September 2017

Research Article: Effect of Jack Bean Supplement on the Response of Rabbits to In-vivo Experimental Cystitis

Robert M. Levin*, Catherine Schuler, Robert E. Leggett, Chang C. Lan, Wen C. Chen and Alpha DY. Lin

Chemical cystitis results from therapy with drugs such as ketamine, cyclophosphamide, and protamine sulfate. The etiology of cystitis relates to a damaged bladder urothelium. This results in the penetration of substances from the urine into the bladder wall resulting in inflammation and increased permeability. We determined the ability of Jack Bean (JB) extracts (CavatideR) to prevent the pathologies associated with experimental cystitis of the rabbit urinary bladder. 18 male WNZ rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 6 rabbits. Group1 - control rabbits. Group 2 - chemical cystitis was induced by placing 25ml saline containing protamine sulfate + uric acid in the bladder for 30 minutes then washing. Group 3 - were given a suspension of the JB preparation by gavage daily for 2 weeks prior to inducing cystitis and for 2 weeks following cystitis. For all groups, each rabbit received a cystometry prior to entering the study, immediately prior to inducing the cystitis, and at 1 and 2 weeks (end of the study). Statistical Analysis: One way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test for individual differences was used; a p < 0.05 was required for significance. Chemical cystitis resulted in decreased compliance, and decreased contractile responses. The compliance of the cystitis + JB group was significantly higher than the control cystitis group. The contractility of the cystitis + JB group to all forms of stimulation were significantly greater than for the control-cystitis group. Our conclusion was that JB provided significant protection against the pathophysiological effects of cystitis.

Cite this Article: Levin RM, Schuler C, Leggett RE, Lan CC, Chen WC, et al. Effect of Jack Bean Supplement on the Response of Rabbits to In-Vivo Experimental Cystitis. Sci J Biol. 2017;1(1): 001-007.

Published: 08 September 2017

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