Volume 3 Issue 1
Research article: Cervical Cancer Screening Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaou Smear in a Cancer Screening Centre
Isikhuemen ME1*, Daniyan ABC2, Sunday-Adeoye I2, Ekwedigwe KC2 and Eliboh MO2
Background: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer among women in developing countries. Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a well-recognized method of screening for premalignant lesions of the cervix. Its use has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries. Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) remains useful in resource constrained settings. The study reviews cervical cancer screening findings (Pap smear and VIA) among women presenting for screening at the National Obstetric Fistula Centre, Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria.
Method: This was a retrospective study. The case records of 316 patients who had undergone cervical cancer screening between August 2012 and March 2013 were reviewed. Analysis of data was done using SPSS statistics version 21.
Results: A hundred and six (33.5%) of patients screened were within ages 30-39 years, and 238 (75.3%) were married. Only 2.4% had a pap smear in the past. Two hundred and seventy seven (87.7%) had normal findings on vaginal examination while 8 (2.5%) had abnormal contact bleeding. Majority (66.5%) were negative on visual inspection with acetic acid. Pap smear results showed that 0.6% had dysplasia while 26.6% had inflammatory changes.
Conclusion: The study showed that results of cervical cancer screening using VIA and pap smear are comparable.
Keywords: Pap smear; Cervical cancer; Cervical screening; VIA
Cite this Article: Isikhuemen ME, Daniyan ABC, Sunday-Adeoye I, Ekwedigwe KC, Eliboh MO. Cervical Cancer Screening Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaou Smear in a Cancer Screening Centre. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2018; 3(1): 009-012.
Published: 22 November 2018
Case Report: Benign TFH-Cell Lymph Node Infiltrate Morphologically Mimicking Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Treated with a TNF Alpha-Inhibitor and Methotrexate: a Case Report and Review of the Literature
Simran Kalsi and Jagmohan S. Sidhu*
Etanercept is a TNFa inhibitor (a biologic agent) and methotrexate is an antimetabolite agent. Both of these drugs are commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, etanercept, methotrexate and rheumatoid arthritis are all known to cause increased numbers of T-Follicular Helper (TFH) cells individually. Combined therapy with etanercept and methotrexate is especially known to cause a higher proliferation of TFH cells than either of these drugs used alone. We present a case report where a 63-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, which was managed with etanercept and methotrexate, presented with extensive lymphadenopathy raising a clinical suspicion of lymphoma. The morphological examination revealed almost complete effacement of lymph node architecture due to marked proliferation of small T lymphocytes with immunophenotypic features of TFH cells and high endothelial cell venules and therefore, mimicked Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma (AITL). Further immunophenotypic examination and T-Cell Receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement studies provided evidence that this entity did not fit the diagnostic criteria for AITL or any other established T-cell lymphoma. Rather, it is a benign TFH-cell proliferation in the lymph node that mimics AITL. To our knowledge, our case is the first well-supported case of a benign TFH-cell proliferation mimicking AITL in an immunosuppressed patient due to combined etanercept and methotrexate therapy.
Cite this Article: Kalsi S, Sidhu JS. Benign TFH-Cell Lymph Node Infiltrate Morphologically Mimicking Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Treated with a TNF Alpha-Inhibitor and Methotrexate: a Case Report and Review of the Literature. Int J Cancer Cell Biol Res. 2018; 3(1): 005-008.
Published: 18 September 2018
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