Volume 4 Issue 1
Bronislaw A Zachara*
As a trace element Selenium (Se) is essential for maintaining the proper development and health of both animals and humans. Se enters the food chain through plants, which absorb it from the soil. Se is one of the elements with a remarkable regional variation in distribution and availability. Most European countries have low Se content in the soil and thus in agricultural crops. The countries with particularly low Se content in the soil include Finland, New Zealand and the Keshan region in China. Some states of the USA and Canada have high content of Se in the soil and hence the cereals grown there are rich in Se. The countries that imported cereals from these countries had relatively high Se intake and high Se levels in the blood. In the 1970s the Se content of domestic foods in Finland and New Zealand were very low with daily dietary Se intake of less than 25 μg/ day. In the Keshan region it was even lower. The low concentration of Se in the blood in Finland was the cause of high mortality from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular diseases. In New Zealand low concentration of Se in the feed was manifested by the high occurrence of the white muscle disease and pathological conditions of liver and heart in sheep and cattle. In China, Se deficiency was manifested by the occurrence of Keshan Disease (KD, cardiomyopathy) and Kashin Beck (osteoarthropathy). In order to increase the dietary Se intake of the population in Finland the government decided to supplement multinutrient fertilizers with sodium selenate. Within a short time, the content of Se in food products increased several times, dietary Se intake increased to around 100 μg/ day and plasma Se concentration increased to over 100 μg/ mL. In New Zealand, imports of selenium rich grains from Australia led to increased dietary intake of Se and Se concentration in plasma to values close to the recommended level of 100 μg/ mL. In the Keshan region of China researchers served sodium selenite to children, and in the mid-1970s, selenite was added to table salt. No significant outbreaks of KD occurred in the late 1970s.
Cite this Article: Zachara BA. Selenium (Se) Intake and Plasma Se Concentration in Low Soil-Se Countries. Sci J Food Sc Nutr. 2018;4(1): 006-012.
Published: 24 November 2018
Leslie A. Frankel* and Kendall A. Pfeffer
Objective: Examine the age at which children can complete a five-point assessment of fullness.
Design: This was a longitudinal study which included a laboratory visit at baseline and a survey follow-up at six months and 12 months after the baseline laboratory visit. The examination of age and ability to complete a five-point assessment of fullness took place during the baseline laboratory protocol. Following a standardized laboratory protocol with parent-child dyads, parents were asked to leave the room, while children completed a self-assessment of fullness with a trained research assistant.
Setting: The study took place in a laboratory setting designed to simulate a home eating environment.
Participants: Fifty-eight parents (96.6% mothers) and their 2.5-6-year-old children, 51.7% White.
Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variable was likelihood of competently completing the fullness task and the independent variable was the child's age. Ability to complete the task was measured by children's demonstration of accurate knowledge of where their stomach was and ability to indicate their degree of fullness on a five-point scale.
Analysis: Visual scatterplot inspections, mean comparisons, and binomial logistic regressions were conducted.
Results: Age explained 50% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in children's ability to self-determine fullness and 84.5% of cases. Older children, around the age of 4.5 years, were more likely to complete the assessment than children under 3.5 years of age, p < .005. Conclusions and Implications: Researchers, clinicians, teachers and parents may begin to use self-assessments of fullness within the context of child feeding with children around 4.5 years of age.
Keywords: Age and fullness; Self-assessment; Child fullness; Fullness assessment; Fullness
Cite this Article: Frankel LA, Pfeffer KA. Age and Ability to Complete an Assessment of Fullness. Sci J Food Sc Nutr. 2018; 4(1): 001-005.
Published: 23 April 2018
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