Volume 2 Issue 2
Ophthalmic problems are a common presentation in every step of daily clinical practice to general physicians and emergency services in hospitals. Red eye has many potential causes and every cause needs targeted intervention. Sudden onset Subconjunctival Haemorrhage (SCH) is a disturbing compliant for the patients who develop it. Causes for subconjunctival haemorrhage are multifactorial. Patients who are on anticoagulant therapy, have uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes, hematological dyscrasias or arteriosclerosis may develop SCH . Trauma and contact lens usage are common causes in younger patients .
Cite this Article: Madan S. Traumatic Subconjunctival Haemorrhage. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(2): 033-034.
Published: 14 December 2018
Research Article: Color Vision in Normal Myopic Eyes and Changes before and after Laser in Situ Keratomileusis
Shengsheng Wei1,2, Jian Guo2, Jing Li2 and Yan Wang1*
Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of color vision and relevant factors in normal myopic eyes and to assess changes in color vision before and after Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK).
Method: Fifty-nine consecutive eyes of 31 patients were prospective valuated in a randomized contralateral-eye study. The color vision was measured with Farnsworth-Mun-sell 100-hue test (FM100 test), and relationships with some optic parameters were analyzed in normal myopic eyes. The difference between postoperative and preoperative was evaluated before and 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery.
Results: For normal eyes, there was positive correlation between Square Root of Total Error Score (Sqrt TES) and intraocular pressures (p = 0.045). Sphere, astigmatism, and visual acuity preoperative showed no correlation with Sqrt TES. The Sqrt TES preoperative of the FM 100 test was 7.89 ± 2.34. After surgery, 1 day Sqrt TES was significant higher than the 1 month postoperative values (p = 0.018, ANOVA test). No signi?cant change in the Sqrt TES was observed at 1 day (8.08 ± 2.47, p = 0.469, paired t test), 1 week (7.76 ± 2.16, p = 0.489, paired t test), or 1 month (7.61 ± 2.75, p = 0.146, paired t test).
Conclusion: Intraocular pressures have significant correlation with Sqrt TES in normal myopic eyes. Little changes were detected by the FM 100 test after Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK). The temporal changes of the photoreceptor layer of the retina maybe as a resulting of increase of intraocular pressures in LASIK surgery might explain this minimal influence.
Keywords: Myopic; LASIK; Color vision
Cite this Article: Wei S, Guo J, Li J, Wang Y. Color Vision in Normal Myopic Eyes and Changes before and after Laser in Situ Keratomileusis. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(2): 029-032.
Published: 19 November 2018
Elfriede Stangler Zuschrott*
With increasing age a patient may suffer from different visual complaints which the ophthalmologist cannot always explain by evident pathologic findings. If a patient states reduced vision we routinely check the refraction and prescribe new glasses, probably we will operate a cataract, treat a retinal disease or glaucoma; but only exceptionally is blurred vision considered to be a disorder of binocularity. Subsequently, such patients will feel their problems to be unsolved and will change from one doctor to the next. The difficulty in diagnosing the loss of binocularity, caused by a small eye deviation, derives from an absence of diplopia; the subjectively given symptoms are vague and indistinct.
Cite this Article: Stangler Zuschrott E. Masked Loss of Binocularity in the Elderly. Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(2): 026-027.
Published: 15 November 2018
Case Series: Effects of Glaucoma and Snoring on Cerebral Oxygenation in the Visual Cortex: a Study Using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS)
Laura M Ward1, Ross T Aitchison1, Gemma Hill1, Jayne Imrie1, Anita J Simmers1, Gordon Morrison1, David Mansfield2, Graeme J Kennedy1 and Uma Shahani1*
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of snoring and glaucoma on the visual Haemodynamic Response (HDR) using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS).
Methods: We recruited 8 glaucoma patients (aged 56-79), 6 habitual snorers (aged 26-61) and 10 healthy control participants (aged 21-78). Glaucoma patients were of varying subtypes and under care of ophthalmologists. Prior to testing visual acuity, blood pressure, heart rate and a medical history were taken. HDRs were recorded over the primary visual cortex (V1) using a reversing checkerboard paradigm.
Results & Discussion: All participants showed the characteristic increase of Oxyhaemoglobin concentration ([HbO]) and decrease of Deoxyhaemoglobin concentration ([HbR]) during visual stimulation (p < 0.001, ?2 = 0.78). Despite this, there were significant group differences with a large effect size (?2 = 0.28). During visual stimulation normal participants had greater [HbO] compared to snorers and glaucoma patients (p < 0.01). Both glaucoma patients and snorers presented with comparable HDR for [HbO] and [HbR] in V1. Importantly, during visual stimulation, the increased [HbO] in glaucoma patients correlated well with their visual fields and self-reported activities of daily living (r = -0.98, r = -0.82, p < 0.05). Both glaucoma patients and snorers presented with an attenuated HDR in V1. Our results suggest a possible vascular link between these conditions.
Keywords: fNIRS; Glaucoma; Haemodynamic response; Oxyhaemoglobin; Deoxyhaemoglobin; Snorers; Visual cortex
Cite this Article: Ward LM, Aitchison RT, Hill G, Imrie J, Shahani U, et al. Effects of Glaucoma and Snoring on Cerebral Oxygenation in the Visual Cortex: a Study Using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Int J Ophthal Vision Res. 2018;2(2): 017-025.
Published: 26 October 2018
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