Volume 1 Issue 1

Research Article: Antioxidant Effect of Absolute Ethanolic Extract of Enantia chlorantha Stem-Bark on Typhoid Fever-Induced Wistar Rats

Merline Namekong Djimeli, Joseph M. Nkodo Mendimi, Simeon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Charles Fokunang, Serge Secco Atsafack, Olivette Dogmo, Magellan Guewo-Fokeng and Donatien Gatsing*

Antioxidants are substances which are capable to protect the body from damages caused by free radical. A variety of free radical scavenging antioxidants exists in the body and many of them are derived from plant sources. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the absolute ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark on typhoid fever induced rats. Salmonella typhi infected rats were treated every day between 7 to 9 AM with different doses of plant extract (9.16, 36.5 and 73 mg/ kg or oxytetracyclin 20 mg/ kg). After 09 days of treatment, the results show that the different doses of this extract have all contributed to the cure of the infected rats, healing marked by the absence of salmonella in animal's blood cultured on ss agar. In the other hand, treatment with different doses of plant extract result in a relative and significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of some blood and tissues antioxidant parameters such as CAT, SOD and POD while the level of alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide as compared to untreated control group animal as compared to the untreated control group animals. Whereas, the level of ALP, MDA and NO were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). These results showed that the absolute ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark possess antioxidant and antityphoid properties necessary to eradicate the free radical produced during typhoid fever infection.

Cite this Article: Djimeli MN, Mendimi Nkodo JM, Chegain Fodouop SP, Fokunang C, Atsafack SS, et al. . Antioxidant Effect of Absolute Ethanol Extract of Enantia chlorantha Stem-Bark on Typhoid Fever-Induced Wistar Rats. Am J Pharmacol Ther. 2017;1(1): 020-027.

Published: 18 September 2017

Review Article: Review and Prospective: Hydrogen Sulfide Rescues Mercury- Induced Toxicity

Bing Bai, Dehong Tan* and Bin Li

We previously reported that Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) may attenuate Methyl mercury (meHg) -induced neurotoxicity via mitochondrial preservation, the encouraging results prompt further investigation on this topic. This paper is intended to review published data on issues of Hg toxicity, mainly chronic neurotoxicity, existing treatments and remedy values of H2S. For issues of Hg toxicity, the main Hg intoxicant syndrome of Minamata Disease, sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics and toxic mechanisms were reviewed. For the existing treatments, the merits and defaults of chelating agents and other approaches by enhancing antioxidant defense mechanisms were discussed. The remedy values of H2S were emphasized, besides the well known that H2S as gaseous and cyto-protective mediator, H2S reacting with metal ions including Hg, H2S superior to other sulfides for protecting organelles because of its freely penetrating cellular membranes, development of H2S donors, plant organosulfurs as potential H2S donors, and several experimental evidences of H2S antagonizing Hg toxicity were also mentioned, which provide reasonable ground for selecting suitable H2S donors to combat Hg toxicity. Prospective: promoting endogenous H2S production or supplying exogenous H2S to some extent may have benefits for Hg intoxication. Activating the enzymes which producing H2S and administrating the reaction substrates for H2S production, or modulating intestinal microbiota may increase the endogenous production of H2S, and developing more stable and slow-releasing H2S donors from chemically synthesized compounds and nature plant organ sulfurs should be done for supplying the exogenous H2S goal.
Keywords: Heavy Metal; Pollution; Hydrogen Sulfide Donor; Organosulfurs; Polysulfides; Mitochondria

Cite this Article: Bai B, Tan D, Li B. Review and Prospective: Hydrogen Sulfide Rescues Mercury- Induced Toxicity. Am J Pharmacol Ther. 2017;1(1): 008-019.

Published: 30 August 2017

Review Article: Stem Cells, Classifications and their Clinical Applications

Amira Ragab EL Barky*, Ehab Mostafa Mohamed Ali and Tarek Mostafa Mohamed

Stem cells have unique characteristics, they are unspecialized cells; they can reproduce itself over and over again through asymmetric cell division. There are different kinds of stem cells which depend on their originality and/ or their potency. Cell therapy is an emerging form of treatment for several diseases. Stem cells have generated incredible interest for repairing failing tissues and organs, which appeared to be the only reasonable therapeutic strategy. They seem to represent a future powerful tool in regenerative medicine, therefore, this review article aimed to elucidate the different sources of stem cells and their clinical applications.

Cite this Article: EL Barky AR, Ali EMM, Mohamed TM. Stem Cells, Classifications and their Clinical Applications. Am J Pharmacol Ther. 2017;1(1): 001-007.

Published: 30 July 2017

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