Volume 1 Issue 2

Research Article: Responses to Modified Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Chronic Pain Participants Compared to Healthy Controls

Peter S. Micalos*, Emmanuel Jesulola, Sokcheon Pak, Eric J. Drinkwater, Jack Cannon and Frank E. Marino

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of modified Aerobic Exercise Prescription (AEP) on health-related outcomes in participants with chronic pain compared to healthy controls. Participants included eleven chronic pain (mean age 50 ± 12 years) and 8 healthy controls (49 ± 10 years). AEP was performed 2 days per week over a 12-week period. For both groups the exercise prescription involved performing aerobic exercise at 60 - 80% of predicted maximum heart rate, however, the perception of muscle pain during exercise was modified to below somewhat-strong pain levels by lowering the exercise intensity. The measured outcomes included health status (SF36), percent body fat, 6 min walk test (6MWT), cardiovascular fitness (HR/Watt), exercise power output (Watts), and pain evaluation (MPQ-Total). Measured outcomes are conveyed as percentage change (%) and effect size (Cohen's d) with 95% Confidence Limits (CL). Results show that the chronic pain participants presented 40.8% lower exercise power output ( - 36.2 W, 95% CL: - 54.8 to - 17.7) due to elevated muscle pain levels during exercise compared to healthy controls. Following modified AEP the chronic pain group improved 29% in SF36-Total health (d = 0.57; 95% CL: - 0.45 - 1.6), 5.1% increase in the 6MWT (d = 0.36; CL: - 0.34 - 1.07), 16.7% increase in Watts (d = 0.43; 95% CL: - 0.02 - 0.88), and 26% reduced chronic pain (MPQ - Total), (d = - 0.41; 95% CL: -1.15 - 0.33). Comparison of the Pre and Post cardiovascular fitness (HR/Watt) for the healthy control group revealed a small -12.2% reduced HR/Watt (d = -0.2 bpm, 95% CL: - 0.3 to - 0.1), and a large 43.5% enhanced exercise power output (d = 44.5 W, 95% CL: 13.5 to 75.6). AEP is associated with clinically relevant changes in reducing pain, increased health status and improving exercise tolerance in participants with chronic pain.

Cite this Article: Micalos PS, Jesulola E, Pak S, Drinkwater EJ, Cannon J, et al. Responses to Modified Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Chronic Pain Participants Compared to Healthy Controls. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(2): 048-054.

Published: 23 October 2017

Review Article: Shoulder and Elbow Injuries Related to Motocross Biking - 5 Year Review

Rohit Singh*, Rohit Dhawan, Maulik Gandhi and Stuart Hay

The ever-growing popular sport of motocross is practiced by millions of people throughout the world, but there is paucity in the literature regarding its associated injuries and their prevention. Motocross is a very established sport that has been practised competitively for over 100 years. It is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits. The first competitions dated back to 1906 [1,2]...

Cite this Article: Singh R, Dhawan R, Gandhi M, Shoulder and Elbow Injuries Related to Motocross Biking - 5 Year Review. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(2): 044-047.

Published: 25 September 2017

Review Article: Fragment Specific Classification and Fixation of Fractures of the Distal Radius

Ahmed Fathy Mohammed Sadek*

Distal Radius Fractures [DRFs], which are coined to the term (pilon radiale), are the most common upper extremity fractures constituting 17-18% of all emergency fractures. The intra-articular variant stands for 50% of DRFs [1].

Cite this Article: Mohammed Sadek AF. Fragment Specific Classification and Fixation of Fractures of the Distal Radius. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(2): 034-043.

Published: 15 September 2017

Case Report: An Unnecessary Broken Jaw: A Case Study Justifying Mandatory Protective Headgear for Girls' and Women's Lacrosse

Steven R. Murray*, Coryann Ledford, Duane O. Hartshorn, Colby Crawford, David Nock, James A. Merrell, Michael T. Reeder, Robert W. Pettitt, Jeremy R. Hawkins

Purpose: To demonstrate the inadequate safety equipment currently used in girls' and women's lacrosse by presenting a case of a female collegiate lacrosse player who suffered a mandibular fracture upon being struck by a lacrosse ball.
Methods: Physical examination, computerized tomography, and panoramic radiography were used to determine a definitive diagnosis of a mandibular fracture for a female collegiate lacrosse player presenting with acute pain after being struck on the jaw by a lacrosse ball.
Results: Computerized tomography and panoramic radiography revealed a fractured mandible.
Conclusion: This case highlights the need for mandatory protective headgear for female lacrosse players.

Cite this Article: Murray SR, Ledford C, Hartshorn DO, Crawford C, Nock D, et al. An Unnecessary Broken Jaw: A Case Study Justifying Mandatory Protective Headgear for Girls' and Women's Lacrosse. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(2): 031-033

Published: 13 September 2017

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