Volume 1 Issue 2

Research Article: Effect of Clofibrate, A PPAR-A Receptors Agonist, On Behavioral Despair Associated With Exposure to Forced Swim in Rats

Nahid Fakhraei, Raghda Javedan, Vahid Nikoui, Azam Bakhtiarian and Seyed Said Pournaghash Tehrani*

Background: The potential effect of clobibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPAR-a ) agonist, on behavioral despair associated with acute exposure to Forced Swim Test (FST) was studied in male rats and further, a possible involvement of PPAR-a receptors mediating this effect was suggested.
Methods: There were two swim sessions. The first was a 15 min pre-test and 24 hrs. Later a second 5 min swim test. The 5 min swim test was used for scoring the passive behavior, immobility, and active behaviors, swimming, climbing and diving. Locomotor activity was also evaluated using Open Field Test (OFT). The drugs were administered three times at 2, 19, and 24 hrs. Subsequent to the initial 15 min pre-test, prior to the 5 min test. Clofibrate was received orally (300 mg/kg, p.o.), Desipramine (DMI), a selective Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) (10 mg/kg) and Fluoxetine (FLX), a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) (10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonealy (i.p.).
Results: Subchronic clofibrate administration (300 mg/kg, p.o.) attenuated behavioral despair determined by decrease in immobility and increase in the active behavior swimming comparable with FLX (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Clofibrate also markedly reduced the number of rearing and rearing to the wall. That are mentioned as depression like behaviors in the OFT. However, it did not affect the number of crossings.
Conclusion: Clofibrate as a PPAR-a receptors agonist may have antidepressant-like effect probably through increase in serotonin level and this central effect could not be attributed to generalized increase in locomotor activity of the animals.

Cite this Article: Fakhraei N, Javedan R, Nikoui V, Bakhtiarian A, Pournaghash Tehrani SS. Effect of Clofibrate, A PPAR-A Receptors Agonist, On Behavioral Despair Associated With Exposure to Forced Swim in Rats. Adv J Toxicol Curr Res. 2017;1(2): 107-115.

Published: 30 December 2017

Review Article: Assessment of Human and Ecosystem Contamination by Organochlorine Pesticides in Cote d'Ivoire

Pierre Manda*, Aholia Jean Baptiste Adepo, Nomane Bernard Goze and Djedje Sebastien Dano

The agricultural policy of Cote d'Ivoire has promoted the intensive use of pesticides. Since colonial times, organochlorine pesticides have been used to improve agricultural productivity and vector control in public health. The high persistence of these active ingredients is today the real reason for their complete ban in agriculture because they represent a risk for human health and the environment. The purpose of this study is to set up an environmental assessment of human and ecosystem contamination by organochlorine pesticides in COte d'Ivoire. A literature review of scientific studies carried out on organochlorine pesticide contamination in various matrices covering the periods of 1985 to 2015 was conducted. The bibliographical sources consulted were original articles of studies performed on matrices taken in Cote d'Ivoire and published in national and / or international journals. The studies were grouped according to three types of matrices such as human (adipose tissue and breast milk), food and environment. Fourteen scientific studies on the identification and determination of organochlorine pesticides revealed an appalling levels of DDT (10017 μg/kg), total HCH (854 μg/kg), dieldrin (23.6 μg/kg) and endosulfan (48 μg/kg) in breast milk and adipose tissue. Foodstuffs such as fish, dairy products and vegetable crops were also contaminated by organochlorine pesticides at levels that sometimes exceeded the threshold limits defined by WHO. To sum up, it is clear today that organochlorine pesticides used in the past were found in all stages of the food chain with a high concentration in humans. There is therefore a real risk of harming human health.

Cite this Article: Manda P, Adepo AJB, Goze NB, Dano DS. Assessment of Human and Ecosystem Contamination by Organochlorine Pesticides in Cote d'Ivoire. Adv J Toxicol Curr Res. 2017;1(2): 094-099.

Published: 28 December 2017

Research Article: Toxic Effects of Two New Phospholipases A2 Isolated from Bothrops Pauloensis Snake Venom

Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Georgina Sucasaca Monzon, Thalita Rocha*, Luis Alberto Ponce-Soto, Sergio Marangoni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Hofling and Lea Rodrigues-Simioni

Bothropic venoms have several substances necessary to serpents' survival, among them Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. The hydrolysis of sn-2 from membrane phospholipids and the release of lysophospholipids and fatty acids induces in the substrate a wide variety of pharmacological effects. Bp-12 (13,789.56 Da molecular mass) and Bp-13 (14,035.62 Da molecular mass) toxins isolated by chromatographic system in reverse phase HPLC on μ-Bondapack C18 column from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom belong to PLA2 family (Lys-49 and Asp-49, respectively). Electrophysiological studies in mouse Phrenic Nerve-Diaphragm Preparation (PND) showed a progressive sarcolemma depolarization, reaching values from -83.9 ± 1 mV (control) until -20.2 ± 1 mV (Bp-12) and -45.0 ± 1.5 mV (Bp-13) after 90 min (n = 3-6; P < 0.05). Histological analysis of mice PND and in vivo, rat paw edema formation and mice serum Creatine Kinase (CK) release were approaches to study the toxins' toxicity. The PLA2s Bp-12 and Bp-13 (50 μg/mL) caused ~ 30% of damage (27.3 ± 1.1% and 30.6 ± 5% of respectively (p ? 0.05); the pathological states of fibers included fiber edema, hypercontration of sarcomeres and myofibrils clumping and condensation. After 60 minutes the CK levels were 827 ± 92.4 U/L for Bp-12 and 1440 ± 129 U/L for Bp-13 (n = 5-6) compared to control (71.4 ± 14.1 U/L, p ? 0.05). The induction of edema of paw was toxins concentration-dependent for Bp-12 and Bp-13, respectively [2.5 μg/paw (0.44 ± 0.02 mL and 0.45 ± 0.07 mL), 5 μg/paw (0.59 ± 0.03 and 0.47 ± 0.04 mL) and 10 μg/paw (0.67 ± 0.07 and 0.45 ± 0.06 mL)] conclude that Bp-12 and Bp-13 are myotoxins for mammalian and might contribute to the pharmacological and pathological effects of the crude venom.

Cite this Article: Randazzo-Moura P, Monzon GS, Rocha T, Ponce-Soto LA, Marangoni S, et al. Toxic Effects of Two New Phospholipases A2 Isolated from Bothrops Pauloensis Snake Venom. Adv J Toxicol Curr Res. 2017;1(2): 069-073.

Published: 31 October 2017

Research Article: Hepatoprotective Property of Dihydromyricetin against Tripterygium Wilfordii Glycosides-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Han Cheng, Mei Li, Jun Li, Hui Chen, Awais Ihsan and Xianju Huang*

Tripterygium wilfordii Glycosides (TG) tablet, a patented traditional Chinese medicine derived from Tripterygium wilfordii extracts, is limited by its narrow therapeutic window and severe toxicity. Dihydromyricetin (DMY), a flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, may possess protective potential on drug-induced hepatic injury based on previous studies. Here, we analyzed the effect of DMY on TG-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The TG-induced hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by the decreased body weight, increased liver index, altered hepatic histology, increased plasma levels of hepatic enzymes and hepatic expression of MicroRNA-122 in comparison with the treatment of water in both male and female mice. Pre-treatment with DMY for 8 days attenuated all aforementioned TG-induced toxic effects including oxidative stress in the liver. In conclusion, our data indicated that the treatment with DMY protected the liver from TG-induced toxicity. Therefore, it could serve as an antidote to attenuate the toxicity of TG-based chemotherapy.

Cite this Article: Cheng H, Li M, Li J, Chen H, Huang X, et al. Hepatoprotective Property of Dihydromyricetin against Tripterygium Wilfordii Glycosides-Induced Liver Injury in Mice. Adv J Toxicol Curr Res. 2017;1(2): 056-062.

Published: 25 October 2017

Research Article : Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Different Restoration Methods in Qixing River Wetland

Jihua Wang*, Yao Ji, Zening Yuan, Jianfei Guan, Chenyu Liu and Lixin Lv

Returning farmland to wetland is a strategic measure for restoration of wetland ecosystems. Bacterial community structure and bacterial diversity in soil are important to the restoration of wetland ecosystems. However, very little research has been conducted to study bacterial communities in natural wetland restoration, particularly the bacterial community composition and diversity of returning farmland to wetland. We used high-throughput sequencing technology to compare the bacterial community structure and diversity of Natural Wetland (NW) soil with Returning Farmland to Wetland (RFW) and Returning Farmland to Forest (RFF) soils in Qixing River wetland. The following phyla were present in all samples: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and Saccharibacteria. Of these, Proteobacteria (20.8-32.6%) Acidobacteria (14.4-33.9%) and Actinobacteria (11.4-19.0%) had the highest relative abundance in all the soil samples. The relative abundance values of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were similar between RFW and NW soils. In addition, study of alpha diversity indices indicated that the ACE, Chao, and Shannon indices were significantly higher in RFW soils than NW and RFF soils. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed that the total salt, organic matter, and total nitrogen significantly affected the bacterial community composition, while the total salt, organic matter, and total nitrogen were the dominant environmental factors in RFW soils. The present research indicated that RFW improved bacterial community diversity and the total salt, organic matter, and total nitrogen contents.

Cite this Article: Wang J, Ji Y, Yuan Z, Guan J, Liu C. Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Different Restoration Methods in Qixing River Wetland. Int J Toxicol Curr Res. 2017;1(2): 049-055.

Published: 16 October 2017

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