Volume 2 Issue 2

Research Article: Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Citrate Synthase and SERCA activities of the Rabbit Urinary Bladder in the presence and absence of Jack Bean

Robert M. Levin*, Robert E. Leggett and Alpha DY. Lin

Background: Ischemia / reperfusion are major etiologies related to obstructive bladder dysfunction. Jack bean is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of human pathologies in traditional Chinese medicine. One mechanism of action is as an antioxidant to relieve oxidative stress.
Methods: Six New Zealand White rabbits were used. The urinary bladders were excised and separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen and stored at -80oC for biochemical analysis. Dose response studies to hydrogen peroxide for citrate synthase, total calcium ATPase, and sarco-endoplasmic reticular Calcium ATPase activities were performed in the presence and absence of Jack Bean. In addition, the CUPRAC test for total antioxidant activity was performed using ascorbic acid as a standard and jack bean as the experimental agent.
Results: 1) Calcium ATPase and SERCA were significantly less sensitive than citrate synthase to H2O2. 2) For all enzymes, hydrogen peroxide showed dose-response inhibitions of activity. 3) For all enzymes, the tissue homogenates incubated with jack bean showed significantly higher activity in the presence of hydrogen peroxide than the homogenates incubated with placebo. 4) JB showed a linear antioxidant activity with concentration.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that jack bean showed protective effects against oxidative stress mediated by hydrogen peroxide.

Cite this Article: Levin RM, Leggett RE, Lin ADY. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Citrate Synthase and SERCA activities of the Rabbit Urinary Bladder in the presence and absence of Jack Bean, Am J Urol Res. 2017;2(2): 044-048.

Published: 20 November 2017

Research Article: Long-Term Urogynecological Complications after Sex Reassignment Surgery in Transsexual Patients: a Retrospective Study of 44 Patients and Diagnostic Algorithm Proposal

Nina Combaz* and Annette Kuhn

Objective: Sex reassignment surgery involves complex operations of the urethra. Despite the immediate surgical complications being well documented, there is a paucity of knowledge about long term micturition disorders.
The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse long term micturition disorders in male and female patients after sex reassignment surgery.
Study Design: Between January 2010 and January 2017 we examined 120 patients after sex reassignment surgery. A patient history was taken, along with a clinical examination including a perineal ultrasound and multichannel urodynamics. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) as measurement of the psychological impact of the urinary symptoms was analysed. Interventions and their outcomes were noted.
Results: Thirty-six of the Male to Female (MTF) and eight of the Female to Male (FTM) transsexuals presented with urinary problems. With a mean interval of 72 months after surgery 51% out of 44 patients considered themselves very bothered by their urogynaecological problems.
In MTF transsexuals, overactive bladder (13/36), stress urinary incontinence (9/36), a reduced urinary flow (7/36), and meatal stenosis (5/36) were common problems. Post void dripping (2/36), fistula (2/36) and urinary tract infection (3/36) had a rather rare occurrence.
Five of eight FTM patients presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. Overactive bladder (2/8), stress urinary incontinence (3/8), post void dripping (3/8), and meatal stenosis (1/8) occurred - but less frequently.
Conclusion: Transsexuals have an increased risk for the development of micturition disorders after sex reassignment surgery. Patients should be counselled on the risks preoperatively, and lifelong specialized follow-up is necessary for the early detection and treatment of arising problems. Treatment is always chosen on an individual basis and differs from common urogynecological findings.
Keywords: Urinary incontinence; Transsexuals; Micturition disorders; Bulking agents; Overactive bladder

Cite this Article: Combaz N, Kuhn A. Long-Term Urogynecological Complications after Sex Reassignment Surgery in Transsexual Patients: a Retrospective Study of 44 Patients and Diagnostic Algorithm Proposal, Am J Urol Res. 2017;2(2): 038-043.

Published: 15 September 2017

Review Article: Urodynamic Evaluation of Adult Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction: A Review

Christopher Koprowski, Brian Friel, Christopher Kim, Kushan D Radadia, Nicholas Farber and Hari Tunuguntla*

Disorders of the lower urinary tract can have a significant impact on quality of life. This is especially true in the case of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction also known as the neurogenic bladder. Caused by damage or a disease process of the nervous system, this can lead to dysfunction with bladder storage or emptying or both. Symptoms of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction depend on etiology and location of nervous system disease process. The disorders include spinal cord injuries as well as diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular accidents, or tumors, among others. A comprehensive urodynamic evaluation of each patient with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction should be performed. Each component of the urodynamics is crucial to evaluate a patient with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Both non-invasive and invasive urodynamic evaluations are useful. Findings on the urodynamics denote risk factors for upper tract and lower tract urinary deterioration and will help guide treatment decisions.

Cite this Article: Koprowski C, Friel B, Kim C, Radadia KD, Tunuguntla H, et al. Urodynamic Evaluation of Adult Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction: A Review, Am J Urol Res. 2017;2(2): 029-037.

Published: 25 July 2017

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